Horse Health & Care - Part 4
( Originally Published 1912 )
CRAMP OF JOINTS
This ailment is of frequent occurrence in young horses and its presence will be discovered when an attempt is made to back the affected animal out of the stall. If able to back him out at all, it will be with difficulty, for when started, he may be unable to lift one of his feet; but in some cases the affected limb will snap and crack and the animal will move off apparently sound, but after standing a while will experience the same trouble. This affection is located in the hock joint, but is often mistaken for stifle trouble.
Apply White Liniment all around the hock joint and give Horse Tonic. See Prescription No. 106, page 178.
A Curb is an enlargement which makes its appearance back of the hock just a little below the joint of the hock and is usually due to a bruise or strain.
During the hot or inflamed stage the parts should be thoroughly poulticed with Antiseptic Poultice until all the inflammation has subsided, then apply the Bone Blister according to directions. In stubborn cases it is well to alternate the Bone Blister with Absorbent according to directions upon the packages. This treatment will remove Curbs of every nature. The animal should not be worked or strained during the treatment.
See Prescription No. 107, page 178.
(See Catarrhal Fever, Cattle Section, page 68.) See Prescription No. 97, page 178.
Diarrhoea is an unnaturally loose condition of the bowels, where the faeces or manure passes away in a liquid condition, indicating a disturbance of the mucous membrane of the bowels. It may becaused by bad, or irregular teeth, indigestion, worms, or unwholesome food.
Have the teeth examined and dressed if need be, and give liberal doses of Horse Tonic and dry feed, such as bran and ground oats. Give the horse a reasonable amount of water, and it is better that the chill be taken off. Give Calf Cholera remedy in large doses.
See Prescription No. 108, page 178.
Dropsy is a watery condition of the blood and is known by heavy swellings in the limbs and abdomen. The treatment consists in giving a Physic Ball and following with Horse Tonic. Give nutritious food and proper exercise.
See Prescription No. 109, page 178.
Dysentery is a watery condition of the bowel contents, similar to Diarrhoea, and is treated in the same manner.
See Prescription No. 110, page 178.
Eczema is a disease of the skin and exists in various forms, but the most serious form is known as Mange. This form is due to a parasite which is very hard to destroy, therefore, the disease is equally hard to overcome ; nevertheless, all forms of Eczema and Mange can be permanently overcome and cured.
Give a Physic Ball and follow with the Horse Tonic internally. After the effects of the Physic Ball have passed away, the animal should be clipped (if the season will permit) and thoroughly scrubbed with soft soap and a solution of Germ Killer. After the parts become entirely dry the animal should be thoroughly rubbed with the Skin Ointment. This treatment should be repeated every few days until the disease is completely cured.
See Prescription No. 111, page 178.
EVERSION OF THE UTERUS.
See Prescription No. 210, page 178.
Inflammation of the eye may be due to an injury or to moon blindness. The treatment consists in bathing the eye with warm Antisepto solution several times daily, and injecting into the eye after each bathing some of the Eye Lotion.
The animal should be kept in a dark stable during a very aggravated case of sore eyes.
See Prescription No. 112, page 178.
A fever is an elevation of the temperature and is caused by a disturbance of one or more organs of the body, and the treatment consists in giving Laxotonic, followed by Fever Paste. Bran mashes and a liberal amount of cool water should also be given.
See Prescription No. 113, page 178.
A fistula is a chronic discharge from a tube-like channel leading into a deep seated abscess, with no tendency to heal.
Fistulas are more common in horses than other animals and is a term commonly applied to a discharge from the withers, known as fistulous withers.
Fistulous withers are usually caused from an external injury. At first a large swelling appears, on one or both sides of the withers. When this occurs it is sometimes advisable to apply the Antiseptic Poultice until the fever and inflammation have been reduced; then wash off parts thoroughly and clip off the hair and mane, and apply Lucky Four Blister every two weeks as per directions until the enlargement disappears, or has been brought to a head, at which time it may be opened at the lowest point and thoroughly drained, the operator making an incision from two to three inches long. The cavity is then to be thoroughly washed out with a solution of Germ Killer, then Healing Lotion or Absorbent should be injected, full strength, into the cavity. In this manner fistulas can be successfully treated.
See Prescription No. 114, page 178.
(See Colic, page 113, the treatment of which is the same.)
It is needless to say that flies are a nuisance to stock owners. However, they are not only a nuisance, but dangerous, for they are the means of carrying and spreading disease, thereby causing heavy losses to stock raisers and owners. They annoy horses to such an extent as to keep them in one continual fret and worry. It is impossible to keep a horse in flesh when thus continually disturbed.
Milking cows are often so disturbed by flies as to cause their owners serious loss, owing to the shortage of milk. It is for this reason that all horse and cow stables should be darkened during the fly season each morning, and the stables thoroughly sprayed with Fly Oil. This should be sprayed upon the cows while they are in the stable and a few minutes before milking time. When this is done the cow will quiet down and give her milk freely and naturally, yielding extra milk to pay many times for the Fly Oil. It is for this reason that a good Fly Oil is an invaluable preparation to have on hand during the fly season. "A word to the wise is sufficient."
See Prescription No. 115, page 179.
The required time of gestation, or the period in which a mare carries her colt, is eleven months, at which time special attention should be given the mare. Place her loose in a box-stall with plenty of bedding; the drinking water should have the chill taken from it, and her bowels should be kept in a natural condition by giving her laxative food.
After the labor pains have appeared, it would be well to keep watch of her, and if she does not deliver her colt within a reasonable length of time—say, one hour—it will be advisable to make an examination. Upon doing so, if the colt be in a natural position, the nose and front feet are the first to be felt. If such be the case, the attendant may assist the mare in delivering her colt by pulling on the front feet. Any other position would indicate an unnatural condition of foaling.
When the colt is born the navel cord should be tied two inches from the body with a string soaked in Umbilicure ; the navel cord should then be cut about four inches from the body. Umbilicure should be applied three times daily to the navel cord until it dries up and drops off. This will prevent the colt from becoming infected with navel diseases. Important in connection with this article is the article on Navel Diseases in Colts.
See Prescription No. 116, page 179.
Founder is a congested condition of the feet, and so affects them as to leave them in a diseased condition unless properly treated. An animal may be foundered by being overfed, by being watered or fed when in too warm a condition for receiving same, or by overdriving.
The first thing noticed will be an inability to move, especially their feet. They will stand with their hind feet pretty well forward and under the body, and if they are compelled to turn around suddenly, they will show evidence of great pain and lameness. .
Bleed the animal by tapping the blood vessel in the neck. The seat of bleeding is about 12 inches from the angle of the jaw, and the operation should be performed by the use of a bleeding Flem on the left under-side of the neck.
The blood vessel may be raised by tying a string around the neck three or four inches below the point of bleeding. This should be drawn up rather snug. By so doing the blood vessel will fill rapidly with blood. The Flem should be placed and struck with a piece of heavy wood about 12 inches long. Always tap the blood vessel lengthwise. After you have let out from two to four quarts of blood, the string on the neck should be loosened and a pin passed through both edges of the opening in the skin and a small string of mane wound around the pin in the form of a figure 8. This will prevent the animal from further bleeding.
Give the animal a Physic Ball and reduce the temperature with Fever Paste. Keep the appetite up with Horse Tonic.
Good big applications of Antiseptic Poultice should be placed on each foot. They should be kept moist in front and behind by pouring water on them every few hours; place a blanket on the animal if in cold, and a fly sheet if in warm weather. Give soft feed and plenty of water.
If the animal shows signs of soreness in the feet in the course of 15 to 30 days an application of Lucky Four Blister should be made around the upper part of the hoof, and especially on the front feet.
See Prescription No. 117, page 179.
Glanders is a slow, contagious, incurable disease, usually confined to horses, but it may be transmitted to man.
The first symptoms of this disease is a discharge from the nose, and swelling of the glands between the lower jaw. As the disease advances small ulcers may be noticeable on the mucous membrane lining of the nose, and sometimes small sores on the hind limbs appear. The discharge from the nose is of a sticky nature. The nose of a glandered horse is usually very dirty, owing to the dust and dirt adhering to this sticky discharge, which is quite different from a horse afflicted with distemper or a cold.
The manger and feed box of a glandered horse is also usually smeared with this sticky material, and dirt collects on same. As there is no cure for glanders in horses, a description of this disease is given so as to enable the owner to detect it as early as possible, in order to avoid danger of becoming infected by this most dreaded disease.
Mallein may be used in determining whether a horse is afflicted with glanders, in the same manner as the tuberculin test is applied to cattle, taking temperatures and injecting the Mallein at the same hour as designated in that test.
It is advisable to destroy the animal as early as possible after the disease has been detected. Mangers should be torn down and the stall thoroughly scrubbed, and saturated with a double strength solution of Disinfectall. The harness, halter, and bridle of an infected horse should also be thoroughly disinfected in the same solution.
See Prescription No. 118, page 179.
This is a swelling of the legs and a breaking out of the skin, extending from hoof to hock and from hoof to knee. It is more often due to a bad condition of the blood than anything else.
Give a Physic Ball and follow with Horse Tonic. Apply Badger Balm to all inflamed parts and in severe cases apply Antiseptic Poultice over the Balm until the inflammation is gone, then continue with the Balm. Give the animal soft feed, such as bran mashes, grass, plenty of water, and keep him out of mud.
Do not wash off the leg unless you have to, but if you do, use a solution of Germ Killer, as water alone has a tendency to aggravate the case.
See Prescription No. 119, page 179.
HARNESS OR COLLAR GALLS
Are brought on from a chafing of the parts by the harness or collars. The parts chafed will first become hot, sore and inflamed; later on a scab will form, and if neglected when scab comes off, there is danger of a sore being left, under which pus cavities often form, causing no end of trouble.
If they reach this stage it will necessitate opening of the pus cavities, and re-quire from 20 to 30 days to heal.
In ordinary cases of Harness and Collar Galls, apply Gall Balm; it will positively prevent and cure all Galls. If pus has collected, open up the sack and wash out the cavity with a solution of Germ Killer, then inject Absorbent.
See Prescription No. 120, page 179.