Symptoms And Treatment Of Cattle Diseases - Part 7
( Originally Published 1912 )
PARALYSIS OF THE HIND PARTS
This is a disease of the nerves which is usually present and follows milk fever, but does sometimes occur independent of anything else, and the treatment consists in giving Laxotonic, both to keep the bowels open and to overcome the paralysis. The animal should be given warm water injections (per rectum) .and should be turned several times daily from side to side. Apply White Liniment to the spine. Give nourishing and laxative food and plenty of water. The urine should be drawn if she is unable to pass it.
See Prescription No. 55, page 176.
(See Catarrhal Fever, page 68.) See Prescription No. 20, page 176.
RABIES IN LIVE STOCK.
Rabies is a contagious germ disease which is liable at all times to attack horses, cattle, sheep, pigs and dogs, as well as a number of other warm blooded animals. This disease is more apt to be brought on by the bites of mad dogs than from any other source.
While this disease is known in live stock as rabies, it is known in mankind as hydrophobia. There is great danger in handling animals thus afflicted as a person is liable to become infected by being bitten or scratched, or from saliva getting into sores on the hands.
The first symptoms which usually appear when an animal is affected with rabies, are nervousness and restlessness, and when cattle are thus afflicted they are liable to do a great deal of bellowing. They slobber considerably, and strain as though they were constipated.
When turned loose they are liable to bunt or hook each other, or other animals, or in fact any object with which they may come in contact. They lose their appetite, more on account of inability to swallow, due to partial paralysis of the throat, than a lack of desire for food.
Horses thus afflicted will kick and bite, chew their mangers, and tear every-thing they can get hold of with their teeth, and have been known to have torn their own flesh from their bodies, during the last stages of the disease.
As rabies is an incurable disease, it is advisable to destroy an animal thus afflicted, as early as possible, to avoid the intense pain and suffering that it would otherwise endure.
RED WATER IN CATTLE,
This is a common affection among cattle in certain localities, and is more common in Europe than elsewhere. It may be caused by injuries of the back; eating irritating plants ; being exposed to low, damp districts, etc. But the most common form of red water usually infects the whole herd. This is the form that most breeders have to contend with. The symptoms are bloody urine, associated with a high fever, and a milking cow may be troubled with a frothy condition of the milk, this haying a reddish tinge.
Rid the bowels of the irritating contents, and by so doing relieve the kidneys. which are always overtaxed. It is their overtaxed condition which produces the hemorrhage, and the result is red urine, or red water. To relieve the kidneys of their irritated and overtaxed condition, Kidney Aid should be given. The bowels should be emptied by giving two to four quarts of warm water (per rectum). A complete change of feed is necessary. This should be of a nutritious and laxative nature, giving plenty of bran mashes, made from flaxseed tea, and allowing the animals to drink all the flaxseed or slippery elm tea that they want.
See Prescription No. 56, page 176.
Rheumatism is a disease due to an acid in the blood, and usually affects either the muscles or joints, or both.
The treatment consists in giving Cow Tonic, as directed, and applying White Liniment to affected parts. The feed should be nutritious and of a laxative nature. In bad cases, poultice joints with Antiseptic Poultice.
See Prescription No. 57, page 176.
The animal should he placed in a stanchion, a rope placed around the neck or horns and a loop around the nose; then fasten the rope to one side, so as to keep him from swinging his head from side to side. The operator then takes the cattle trocar and passes it directly through the partition between the nostrils. The bull ring should be dipped in Healing Oil, then passed through the opening and joined in the usual manner. See Prescription No. 58, page 176.
Ringworm is due to a parasite which affects the skin only. It has the appearance of a gray, crusty condition of the skin, which soon destroys the hair follicles, and the hair falls out, leaving the skin in a dirty and scabby condition.
Give Cow Tonic internally, and wash off the affected parts with the Germ Killer solution and apply Skin Ointment, thoroughly rubbing it in. See Prescription No. 59, page 176.
SCOURS IN CALVES.
(See Calf Cholera, page 64.)
See Prescription No. 13, page 176.
There are several forms of skin disease, such as itch, ringworm, mange, eczema, etc., etc., and it is hard for an inexperienced person to distinguish one from another.
The treatment consists in giving Cow Tonic internally; washing all the affected parts with a warm solution of Germ Killer, and applying the Skin Ointment, thoroughly rubbed in. Continue this until the skin heals and all signs of itching or irritation have passed away.
See Prescription No. 60, page 176.
Slobbering is not a disease, but an ailment which is due to several causes, such as an inflamed condition of the tongue, ragged edges of the teeth, or an overloaded stomach.
If due to ragged edges of teeth, they should be filed. If due to swollen condition of the tongue, give Fever Paste. If due to an overloaded stomach, give Laxotonic.
See Prescription No. 61, page 176.
This may be due to several causes, such as sharp teeth and inflammation of the tongue. Treatment.
Dress the teeth and wash out the mouth thoroughly with a solution of Antisepto, and give small and often repeated doses of Fever Paste. See Prescription No. 62, page 176.
May be due to taking cold or infection, such as catarrhal fever.
Give Fever Paste internally and apply the White Liniment to the throat externally from ear to ear. The bowels should be kept open with Laxotonic and warm water injections (per rectum), and soft and nutritious feed should be fed. Apply Antiseptic Poultice to throat if needed.
See Prescription No. 63, page 176.
Sprains are brought on by violent injuries and usually affect the tendons, joints and muscles. The treatment is to wash the parts off thoroughly with a warm solution of Germ Killer and apply Antiseptic Poultice, continuing, this until all fever and swelling have disappeared. If the lameness remains, the parts should be blistered with Lucky Four Blister, applied according to directions.
See Prescription No. 64, page 176.
SUNSTROKE OR OVERHEATED.
This is usually brought on by over-exertion, such as too fast driving, etc., etc. The treatment consists in sponging the animal with cold water. Keep in the shade where the air is fresh and pure. Give Fever Paste and 4 ounces of whiskey every 3 hours to reduce the temperature, and small sips of water at short intervals. Give linseed tea to drink, if animal will drink. Do not drench.
See Prescription No. 65, page 176.
SUPPRESSION OF MILK.
This is not a disease, but a condition which is of greater frequence in cold weather than in warm weather, and is often due to some derangement of the system. The treatment consists in giving Cow Tonic according to directions until the natural flow of milk is brought back.
See Prescription No. 66, page 176.
All surgical operations should be performed in a careful and cleanly manner. Knives and instruments should be thoroughly cleansed and dipped into a strong solution of Germ Killer, and the seat of the operation should be thoroughly washed with the same solution. Then apply Healing Oil to the hands, instruments and the parts to be operated upon, and the results will always be favorable.
See Prescription No. 67, page 176.
TEAT STOPPAGE OR STRICTURE.
This is a very common, annoying and complicated ailment. There are two forms of stricture or stoppage ; one at the point of the teat, and one at the base of the teat. In either case the treatment is to wash the teats off thoroughly with a solution of Germ Killer. Teat Plug (see illustration, page 172) should also be washed in the same solution. If the stoppage be at the point of the teat, dip the Teat Plug into the Badger Balm and pass it into the teat far enough to cause the little bulb to enter the teat. When this is done the plug will be retained and should be allowed to remain from one milking to another, and the treatment continued until milking becomes perfectly natural and easy.
If the stricture be higher or at the base of the teat, a Teat Expander (see illustration) must be passed up through the stricture. After it is in position, the center part of the expander must be pressed upon. This will spread the upper part of the expander sufficiently to expand the stricture. However, this instrument should not be allowed to remain more than from one-half hour to an hour at a treatment. A Teat-Bistoury may be used in the same manner. Badger Balm should be applied to the instrument before inserting. The hands of the operator and whole udder of the' cow should be thoroughly washed before the operation is begun. Cleanliness must be. given strict attention in these cases or the results will not be favorable.
See Prescription No. 68, page 176.
This common form of sore teats may be treated by applying Badger Balm. This should be done after milking, leaving the teats in a nice, clean condition so as to heal between milkings.
See Prescription No. 69, page 177.
Teat Warts are small growths which adhere to teats in small or large numbers. Treatment consists in touching the little warts with Wartine, according to directions. This should be done while cow is dry.
See Prescription No. 70, page 177.
Tuberculosis or Consumption in cattle is an infectious and communicable disease known by the formation in the glands and other parts of the body of small bunches called tubercles. It is from these tubercles that the disease receives its name, Tuberculosis. The germs of tuberculosis enter the body by way of the nostrils in the air breathed, or by way of the mouth or digestive tract in feed, seldom through the genital organs by conception. As soon as the germs enter the body they begin to multiply, slowly but surely, until the entire body of the animal becomes affected. Such animals spread the disease to other animals stabled with them, and calves or pigs, consuming milk from a tuberculous cow, are liable to become affected, as are human beings.
All germ diseases, and especially tuberculosis, are more liable to affect animals that are in a run-down condition, such as cows afflicted with infectious abortion or retained afterbirth, than those that are in a strong, healthy condition, for the reason that the animal that lacks vitality acts as a hot-bed for the germs of diseases to propagate or multiply in, while the healthy, strong. vigorous animal may ward off the disease to some extent.
How to Prevent Tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis, being largely an indoor disease, due to artificial life, such as being housed or stabled, every possible precaution should be taken for its prevention and spread. One tubercular cow, confined in a close, foul, hot, badly ventilated stable, is liable to infect all the other cattle in the same enclosure. Even in the best of barns where there exists any weakening disease among cattle, such as infectious abortion, contagious mammitis, dysentery, or retained afterbirth, there is danger of these affections inviting the entrance and spread of tuberculosis and consequent destruction of the herd. To prevent and guard against this disease, the maintenance of absolute cleanliness is necessary.
Thoroughly Disinfect All Stables.
Admit plenty of sunlight into your stock-barn, for it is the foe of germs. Then you must have good ventilation to carry off the foul gases and allow fresh air to enter. Sunshine, cleanliness, fresh air, pure water and appropriate feed arc essential to success in the live-stock business. See page 91 regarding stock-barn.
Detecting the Presence of Tuberculosis.
By means of the tuberculin test it is an easy matter to tell whether tuberculosis is present in a herd. It is the most reliable method of detecting tuberculosis, even in its early stages. All herds should be tuberculin tested. Every animal in every herd of cattle should be tested, as tuberculosis affects a herd to such an extent as to render it unprofitable, although it may be the picture of health.
The owner can easily and safely apply the test himself after receiving proper instructions, instruments and a reliable tuberculin, which is a very important part of the test. The test should be applied to a herd, and if any diseased animals are found, they should be removed. The balance of the herd should be tested again in two months. Repeat the test every two months, removing after each test all infected cattle until all tuberculous animals are wiped out of the herd. ' he remainder of the herd should then be tested every six months, or at least once a year, to be on the safe side. At the same time, all cattle affected 'with contagious abortion or other diseases should be treated until perfectly well, as they are in condition to attract tuberculosis.
In conducting the tuberculin test, each animal in the herd should be marked by a number tag; or the number may be clipped into the hair on right hip, and the number on the tag should correspond with the number on the tuberculin test sheet, showing a record of the test of each animal in the herd. Test each new animal before it is allowed to mix with the herd. If you make the test at once, you will save all cows that are not affected; if you put the test off, the cows which you could save now will sooner or later become diseased and a loss to you. Learn to make the test yourself so that you may apply it every six months, or at least once a year.
Stock owners should urge their neighbors to test their cattle at least once a year so as to keep the community free from tuberculosis.
How to Apply the Test.
Before commencing the test, each animal should be tied up in the stable for at least three hours. Do not test a sick animal, or one in heat or otherwise greatly excited, twenty-four hours before or after calving, or one just having aborted or retained her afterbirth. Avoid testing in extra hot weather. Make no sudden changes of food at any time of test and do not give cold water just before taking temperature. Do the work as gently and quietly as possible to prevent unduly exciting the cattle.
This Thermometer is to be inserted in the rectum of the animal to be tested, thus: place clasp on tail so the thermometer cannot fall out and break. Leave thermometer in place for three to five minutes, remove and read figures and then jot them down on test sheet (included in each outfit) opposite the number of the animal to be tested, as shown by the tag. These number tags are supplied free of charge with each outfit. Begin at cow No. 1 and test each animal in turn, taking each temperature in the same way, being careful to shake the mercury down below 100 before inserting the thermometer. This is done by holding the thermometer tightly, then giving it a quick jerk.
A little vaseline applied to the rectum of each animal at beginning of test makes it easy to insert the thermometer.
First Temperatures (First Day).
Temperatures should be taken at 3 p. m., 5 p. m. and 7 p. m. Tuberculin should be injected after the 7 o'clock temperature.
Injecting the Tuberculin.
Fill this Hypodermic Syringe with Tuberculin.
Pick up the skin of the animal, with the left hand directly back of shoulder blade in this manner: and with a quick, short jab with the syringe insert the needle into the skin. Then press in piston to first notch on piston, this being half dramó2 C C, or one dose for a full grown animal. The entire herd should be watered and returned to their places.
Next Temperatures (Second Day).
Temperatures should be taken 10 hours after injection of Tuberculin and following every two hours. These are the hours: 6 a. m., 8 a. m., 10 a. m., 12 m. and 2 p. m.
See Prescription No. 71, for Testing Cattle for Tuberculosis, page 177.
Cattle suspected of being in the last stages of tuberculosis, or that have been tampered with to prevent reaction, or that have been tuberculin tested inside of sixty days, should have from 3 C C to 4 C C of tuberculin injected into them, and begin taking temperatures six hours after injection, and every two hours there-after until seven temperatures have been taken.
All barns, stables, sheds, or buildings, where tubercular cattle have been housed, should be thoroughly swept, brushed and cleaned; all loose or unsanitary mangers should be removed, and the entire stable thoroughly disinfected by using a double strength solution of Disinfectall. The mangers, stanchions, gutters, walls, and partitions should be especially saturated with this solution, and all water used in preparing whitewash should contain Disinfectall as per directions.
The ceiling, as well as the walls, should be whitewashed, and a liberal amount of the whitewash may be permitted to fall upon the floor, mangers, and gutters, as this has a tendency to purify and sweeten the stable.
As tumors come under the head of operations, it is needless to say that in their treatment absolute cleanliness, both of hands and instruments, is essential. The parts should be thoroughly washed with a solution of Germ Killer, and this followed with applications of Healing Oil. To heal the wound use alternately Absorbent and Healing Lotion.
See Prescription No. 72, page 177.