Symptoms And Treatment Of Cattle Diseases - Part 5
( Originally Published 1912 )
CONSTIPATION IN CALVES
Constipation is more often noticed in newly born calves. There may be a continual switching of the tail, uneasiness, and an effort to empty the bowels. If Nature fails to do its part, the treatment is to give on the tongue a small dose of castor oil (from one to three ounces). Give Laxotonic in small doses. A pint of warm water injection should also be given with a flushing outfit per rectum.
The oil and injection may be repeated once daily until the desired results are obtained.
See Prescription No. 15, page 174.
CONSTIPATION OR STOPPAGE OF THE BOWELS IN CATTLE.
This is one of the most common ailments that cattle are subject to; at the same time more cattle die from this cause than any other, 'for the simple reason that constipation is due to paralysis of the bowels.
Constipation is to be regarded as the sign of another disease, rather than a disease of itself. It occurs in almost all general fevers.
In order to overcome constipation the treatment must be applied to overcome the ailment which causes it. Seventy-five per cent of the cases of constipation are due to partial paralysis of the bowels. In this case the bowels require a laxative and tonic, and not a physic, for if the bowels are paralyzed a physic will have a tendency to cause irritation, congestion and inflammation. For this reason it is dangerous to give a cow salts or oil.
A cow thus afflicted should be given plenty of drinking water with the chill taken from it, bran mashes made from flaxseed tea, and Laxotonic according to directions. Also inject several quarts of warm water once or twice daily per rectum by the use of a flushing outfit, and give the animal a reasonable amount of exercise.
See Prescription No. 24, page 175.
This is a disease communicable from one cow to another. This disease is ushered in by a slight fever, which, however, is usually overlooked, and the first sign is tenderness of the teats. On examination they will be found to be redder and hotter than normal, and at the end of two or three days there appear knobs like little peas, pale red in color, and they gradually grow larger, so that at the end of a week they may be an inch in diameter. The yield of milk is diminished. From the seventh to the tenth day the eruptions form into blisters with depressions in the center and raised margins. The blister is, however, divided into several pockets, and in order to allow all the contents to escape each pocket has to be opened separately. If the pocket forms on the surface, where there is a thick coat of hair, it does not form a blister, but oozes out through the skin in amber or straw-colored masses. In a few days after this collection forms it turns yellow and the scab dries up and falls off and leaves a distinct pit in the skin. The animal suffers intense agony while being milked, as the scabs are cracked and broken by the hands of the milker.
In severe cases give Cow Tonic internally. Badger Balm should be applied to all affected parts of teats and udder, after washing same with a solution of Germ Killer ; apply Absorbent to all abcesses.
See Prescription No. 25, page 175.
As dehorning cattle is rather a cruel but necessary operation, it is advisable to prevent the horns from growing rather than removing them after they have once grown.
To prevent the horns from growing on calves, it is necessary to apply a dehorning remedy when the calves are from one to ten days old.
The operation is performed as follows: The little animal is caught and gently laid over on its side, in which position it is easily held by one assistant, while the operator clips the hair off of the little knobs where the horns appear. He then applies the remedy thoroughly to a spot not to exceed the size of a quarter of a dollar. The calf is then turned over and the other side treated in a like manner.
If this treatment is properly applied, no horns will ever make their appearance. All cattle should be dehorned, chiefly to protect them from each other. If unfortunately an animal has not been dehorned while still a calf, the dehorning clip-per may be resorted to. This operation is performed by placing the animal in a stanchion and fastening the head tightly, then applying the dehorning shears, pretty well down onto the head so as to be sure and remove enough of the horn to prevent any further growth. With one sweep of the dehorning shears the horn should be removed. Apply a little healing Oil after the operation to prevent any bad results from following. Cool weather should be selected for this operation.
See Prescription No. 26, page 175.
DIARRHOEA IN CATTLE.
Diarrhoea in cattle is an indication of indigestion. It comes on at all seasons of the year, but it is more liable to come on during the grass season, and is more prevalent during the wet season rather than the dry, on account of the heavy growth of grass, this being hard to digest.
The animal should receive a little ground feed two or three times daily, in which should be given moderate doses of Cow Tonic. The drinking water should be clear and pure, and given warm and sparingly. In bad cases give Calf Cholera Remedy.
See Prescription No. 27, page 175.
Sore eyes may be brought on from many different causes. It may be due to injuries or to catarrhal infection. When due to the latter, the whole herd may be thus afflicted and oftentimes is.
A sore eye due to an injury should be bathed three times daily with a quart of Antisepto Solution, full strength, and followed with Eye Lotion injected after each bath. This same treatment should be used when sore eyes are due to a catarrhal infection or Pink Eye. And in addition to this treatment the cattle should have free access to a liberal amount of salt, in which should be mixed Stokvigor.
If both eyes of the animals be affected and it be difficult for them to see, it is advisable to keep them in a dark stable during the day and let them graze at night, on account of the strong sunlight being painful to the eyes.
See Prescription No. 28, page 175.
In order to detect whether an animal has a fever or not, it is always advisable to use a Fever Thermometer, and if the temperature be higher than normal it indicates a fever. It may be due to many causes, such as inflammation of the lungs, inflammation of the throat, inflammation of the udder, etc., etc. However, the fever should be controlled and reduced by giving the Fever Paste according to directions, and the bowels should be kept loose with the Laxotonic (per mouth), and injections (per rectum) of from two to four quarts of warm water once or twice daily; also apply the White Liniment to the inflamed parts, such as the throat or lungs, or both.
Every stock raiser should own a Veterinary Thermometer, for it may save him considerable expense.
See Prescription No. 29, page 175.
A fistula is a pus cavity, containing matter, and is commonly known as a running sore. It may appear on any part of the body, limbs, or feet.
Open the parts so as to allow the matter to flow freely; wash out the cavity once daily with a solution of Germ Killer, and follow by injecting a quantity of Absorbent and Healing Lotion, alternately, according to directions and according to the size of the cavity. Give Cow Tonic internally according to directions to tone up the system.
See Prescription No. 30, page 175.
FOOT DISEASE OR SORE FEET IN CATTLE.
Sore feet in cattle may be due to several causes, but the one kind which the ordinary dairyman or breeder has to contend with is due to either standing on cement floors or running in wet, boggy pastures. The feet usually crack between the claws, swell and become inflamed. In either case the treatment is the same, and consists in washing the sore or inflamed feet with a solution of the Geran Killer (one ounce to a gallon of water), and applying both Healing Lotion and Absorbent, alternately, to all open sores or inflamed parts. If a growth of proud flesh appears between the hoofs or on any part of the limb, it should be overcome by frequent use of the Healing Lotion, and the inflamed or sore feet should be placed in antiseptic Poultices, once daily, until all inflammation and lameness have been overcome. Use a Poultice Boot.
How to Make a Poultice Boot.
Take a round piece of sole leather six or seven inches in diameter and as thick as you wish it; then stitch a heavy canvas to the edges of this sole leather and have it run up about twelve inches.
How to Apply the Poultice.
Put enough Antiseptic Poultice into the boot to cover the foot nicely, then fasten the canvas or boot on by the use of strap instead of strings, as strings cut in too
The Cow Tonic should be given as directed to tone up the system. See Prescription No. 31, page 175.
Founder is not of frequent occurrence in cattle, but it does occur to overfed or show cattle. It resembles a stiffness, but upon feeling of the hoofs they will be noticed to be hotter than usual ; lying down considerably is another symptom.
If this be noticed in the early state it is advisable to bleed the animal by drawing from four to six quarts of blood, according to the size of the animal. The bowels should be loosened up with Laxotonic (per mouth), and warm water injections (per rectum), and the Fever Paste given to reduce the fever. The feet should be poulticed with Antiseptic Poultice, which should be changed once daily. (Use the Poultice Boot for applying poultice.) The animal should be fed sparingly with food of a laxative nature. Exercise should be given as soon as the animal is able to take it.
See Prescription No. 32, page 175.
This should never occur, but sometimes it is unavoidable, and the treatment is to wash the parts thoroughly with a solution of Germ Killer and apply the Badger Balm to the frozen parts.
See Prescription No. 33, page 175.
GARGETóCAKED UDDER OR INFECTIOUS MAMMITIS.
Garget or caked udder is a very common but annoying disease, and is due to many causes, the most common being a condition of the blood, and for this reason Cow Tonic should be given freely according to directions. The udder should be thoroughly rubbed twice daily with Badger Balm and White Liniment. In severe cases apply an Antiseptic Poultice by placing a band around the cow's body and udder. Keep the animal well bedded to prevent the udder coming in contact with any dampness. Keep the bowels open by giving warm water injections (per rectum). If the caked udder takes on an infectious form, then the milkers should wash their hands in a solution of Germ Killer after milking each cow, as this will prevent the spread of the disease. Stables should be disinfected with a good germ destroyer, such as Disinfectall.
As the genital organ diseases are usually due to retention of the afterbirth, this subject is fully described and the treatment fully given under subject of Afterbirth Retained in foregoing pages.
See Prescription No. 35, page 175.
As it is pretty well known by most people that the gestation period of a cow is nine months, or 280 to 285 days, it will be needless for much to be said on this subject, as gestation table may be seen on page 20. (A calf born on the 210th day may live; also 336th.) A cow failing to carry her calf to the period of 280 days may be considered an abortion, and this subject is thoroughly described under heading Abortion.
GONORRHOEA IN BULLS.
Gonorrhoea is an infectious catarrhal discharge of the genital organs. It is brought on by coming in contact with living germs, such as serving a cow afflicted with infectious abortion, or one that has retained the afterbirth, and comes in heat while she is still discharging.
All herd bulls should have the sheath washed out after each service with a solution of Antisepto to prevent becoming affected and contracting gonorrhoea. It is due to this disease that infectious abortion is spread.
See Prescription No. 36, page 175.
Grass Staggers is a disease brought on by overloading the stomach with grass. As soon as the stomach becomes overloaded, indigestion sets in, which interferes with the. brain, causing the animal to walk with an unnatural and unsteady gait, usually walking in a circle, and oftentimes staggering and falling. If she is filled with gas, she should be tapped with a cattle trocar to prevent death from smothering. If noticed in time, or before she goes down, small doses of Laxatonic should be given according to directions, until she recovers. A gag may be placed in her mouth.
See Prescription No. 37, page 175.
GRUBS OR WARBLES IN SKIN OF CATTLE.
Grubs or Warbles in the skin of cattle are caused by a fly which deposits its egg during the summer months, in or on the skin of the animal, and the egg is retained in the winter months in a little round sack beneath the skin, having a small opening through which the larva escapes in the early part of the following summer and develops into a fly.
To overcome and prevent the development or hatching of this fly, the grub which is found beneath the skin of the animal along the back, and is known by a swelling about the size of a boil, should be opened by squeezing; then inject a little Healing Oil a few times by the use of a small oil-can. The time to do this is during the early part of spring.
See Prescription No. 38, page 175.