Chronological Account Of The Great World War - 1915
( Originally Published 1919 )
Jan. 1.—British battleship Formidable sunk by a submarine in the English Channel.
Jan. 2.—Dar-es-Salaam, German fort in East Africa, bombarded by British.
Jan. 3.—Capture of Steinbach, Alsace, by the French. Turks defeated by the Russians near Ardahan.
Jan. 4.—The Hamburg-American liner Dacia is admitted to United States Register.
Jan. 5.—Heavy fighting in Alsace.
Jan. 6.—Germans reach the Sucha river, Poland; capture of Kimpolung, by the Russians.
Jan. 7.—British steamer Elfreda sunk by mine off Scarborough.
Jan. 8.—Battle of Soissons begins.
Jan. 9.—Russians enter Transylvania, in an advance on Budapest.
Jan. 10.—Sixteen German aeroplanes make a demonstration over English Channel, but are driven back by stress of weather. Mafia Island, German East Africa, occupied by the British.
Jan. 12.—Use of poisonous shells by the Germans reported.
Jan. 13.—Baron Burian appointed Austro-Hungarian Foreign Minister. Tabriz, Persia, occupied by the Turks.
Jan. 14.-French driven across the Aisne, east of Soissons, after a week's battle. Swakopmund, chief port of German South-West Africa, occupied by Union forces.
Jan. 16.—The Pope orders prayers for peace in all Catholic churches.
Jan. 18.-Czernovitz captured by the Austrians.
Jan. 19. Zeppelins bombard the English coast (Yarmouth and King's Lynn). Austrian armies enter Galicia. Jassin, in East Africa, surrenders to German forces.
Jan. 21.—Hartmannsweilerkopf, Alsace, captured by the Germans.
Jan. 22.-German air raid over Dunkirk; British air raid on Zeebrugge.
Jan. 23.—La Bassée occupied by the British.
Jan. 24.—German raid on East Coast of England frustrated; sinking of the battle-cruiser Blucher.
Jan. 24-25.—British naval raid at the Gulf of Alexandretta.
Jan. 25.—German cruiser Gazelle torpedoed in the Baltic.
Jan. 26.—Confiscation of wheat, corn, and flour in Germany announced.
Jan. 27.—German attacks all along the Western front repulsed.
Jan. 28.—Turkish invasion of Egypt reaches point east of El Kantara. German auxiliary cruiser Prinz Eitel Friedrich sinks the William P. Frye in the South Atlantic.
Jan. 30.—Submarine raid on British ships in the Irish Sea. Tabriz, Persia, occupied by the Russians.
Jan. 31.—The Dacia sails from Galveston.
Feb. 1-3.-Battle of the Rawka; German victory.
Feb. 2.-First Turkish attack on the Suez Canal.
Feb. 3.-Great Britain announces that foodstuffs from the United States destined to the Central Powers will be confiscated. Surrender of General Kemp, German West Africa.
Feb. 4.-Germany announces that after February 18th the seas round the British Isles will be a " war zone."
Feb. 4-8.-Germans pushed back on the Rawka river.
Feb. 6.-The Lusitania enters Liverpool after flying the American flag while crossing the Irish Sea.
Feb. 9.-After repeated attacks, the heights of Les Eparges remain in French possession. Arrival of the Wilhelmina at Falmouth with cargo of food for Germany.
Feb. 10.-United States Government protests against use of neutral flags by English ships, and warns Germany as to consequences of at-tacks on American ships in the submarine " war zone."
Feb. 11.-Cargo of the Wilhelmina held for disposal by a British prize court.
Feb. 12: Russian defeat at the Mazurin Lakes.
Feb. 13.-Great British air raid from Dunkirk on Ostend, Zeebrugge, and other Belgian coast towns.
Feb. 15.-Germany refuses to yield on her " war zone " decree, which, however, may be cancelled if foodstuffs are permitted to reach Germany.
Feb. 18.-The Bukovina abandoned by Russian forces. German " blockade " of the British Isles begins.
Feb. 19.-Great Britain announces that the practice of using neutral flags will only be employed to avoid capture. Allied bombardment of forts at entrance to the Dardanelles.
Feb. 21.-Air raid on Essex.
Feb. 24.-Przasnysz captured by the Germans.
Feb. 25.-Forts at entrance to the Dardanelles reduced. Sinking of the auxiliary cruiser Clan MacNaughton announced.
Feb. 26. Heavy fighting near Beauséjour, in Champagne. Bombardment of Ossowietz by the Germans begun.
Feb. 27.-Steamer Dacia seized by a French cruiser and taken to Brest. Recapture of Przasnysz by the Russians. Admiral Hugo von Pohl appointed to command the German battle fleet.
Feb. 28.—Inner forts of Dardanelles bombarded. Blockade of German East Africa.
Mar. 1.—British and French Governments claim right to detain and take into port ships carrying goods of " presumed enemy destination, ownership or origin."
Mar. 3.—Germans use liquid fire in the Vosges.
Mar. 4.—German submarine U8 sunk by British destroyer off Dover.
Mar. 5.—Allied bombardment of Smyrna.
Mar. 6.—M. Venizelos, Greek premier, resigns.
Mar. 9.-New Greek ministry formed, pledged to neutrality.
Mar. 10.—Neuve Chapelle captured by the British. German submarine rammed and sunk by H. M. S. Ariel.
Mar. 11.—German auxiliary cruiser, Prinz Eitel Friedrich, takes refuge in Newport News.
Mar. 14.—German cruiser Dresden sunk near Juan Fernandez by H. M. S. Kent and Glasgow.
Mar. 17.—Memel occupied by Russian troops.
Mar. 18.-Allied repulse in the Dardanelles ; H. M. S. Irresistible and Ocean sunk by floating mines, the Inflexible and Gaulois disabled. Bombs dropped on Calais. Russians resume invasion of East Prussia.
Mar. 21.—Memel recaptured by the Germans. Zeppelins bombard Paris.
Mar. 22.-Przemysl surrendered to Russians after siege of 200 days. Dacia seizure declared valid by French prize court.
Mar. 25.—Coast of Courland bombarded by German fleet.
Mar. 27.—Hartmannsweilerkopf, Alsace, captured by the French.
Mar. 28.—Air raids on Calais. Russian fleet bombards outer forts of the Dardanelles. Steamer Falaba sunk by submarine off the South Coast of Wales.
Mar. 29.—Russians force the Dukla Pass and invade Hungary. German submarine U29 (Commander Weddingen) sunk. Liman von Sanders appointed to command Turkish armies on Gallipoli.
Mar. 31.—Libau shelled by the Germans.
Apr. 4.—Austro-German campaign in Galicia begins.
Apr. 5.—Reparation for the sinking of the William P. Frye demanded by the United States. Apr. 5-9.—Heights of Les Eparges, on the Woëvre, captured and held by the French.
Apr. 6.—Cisna, in Galicia, captured by the Russians. Apr. 7. Prinz Eitel Friedrich interned at Newport News.
Apr. 9.—Attempted assassination of the Khedive of Egypt.
Apr. 10.—French advance between the Meuse and the Moselle, and capture of Les Eparges.
Apr. 11.—German steamer Kronprinz Wilhelm arrives at Hampton Roads.
Apr. 12.—Turkish attacks on Basra repulsed. Settlement of the Wilhelmina dispute arrived at.
Apr. 14. Zeppelin raid on north-east English coast.
Apr. 17.—British seize Hill 60. Attack by Turkish torpedo boats on transport Manitou in the AEgean announced.
Apr. 18-21.-Unsuccessful German counter-attacks on Hill 60.
Apr. 22.-Second Battle of Ypres begins ; German gas attacks; Canadians suffer heavily. Shipping between Holland and Great Britain suspended by the British Government.
Apr. 24.-Germans storm St. Julien.
Apr. 25. Australian landing at Gaba Tepe, Dardanelles ; battle of the landing begins. Kronprinz Wilhelm interned at Newport News.
Apr. 27.-British submarine E14 dives under mines and operates in the Sea of Marmora. French armoured cruiser Léon Gambetta torpedoed and sunk in the Straits of Otranto.
Apr. 28.-French recapture Hartmannsweilerkopf, Alsace. Blockade of coast of German Cameroons declared.
Apr. 30.-Ipswich and Bury bombed by German aviators.
May 1.-British army headquarters at Dunkirk bombed by German artillery from Nieuport, 22 miles distant. French throw shells into Metz. Russian line broken in Galicia. American tank steamer Gui flight sunk by torpedo off the Scilly Islands. German Embassy at Washington issues mysterious warning to intending passengers on the Lusitania.
May 2.-Turkish attack on Krithia position, Dardanelles.
May 3.-Shortening of British line in Ypres salient. Teutonic advance towards Riga and Mitau. Triple Alliance denounced by Italy.
May 5.-Hill 60 captured by the Germans. Karibib, German South-West Africa, occupied by Union forces.
May 6-9.-Second battle of Krithia.
May 7.-The Lusitania sunk by submarine off the Old Head of Kinsale. British torpedo-boats sunk off the Belgian coast. Mackensen forces the Vistula line.
May 9.-Libau occupied by the Germans. Beginning of Battle of Richebourg-Festubert; limited British advance. Allied attack on German lines in Artois.
May 10.—German Government issues message of " sympathy and heart-felt regret " to America on sinking of the Lusitania. Zeppelin raid on Southend-on-Sea.
May 12.—H. M. S. Goliath torpedoed off Gallipoli. Windhoek, German South-West Africa, occupied by Union troops. Bryce Commission Report on Belgian atrocities published.
May 13.—Zeppelin raid on Ramsgate. Italian Cabinet resigns. President Wilson's note on the Lusitania published. Dernburg sent back to Germany.
May 15.—Russian stand on the Vistula.
May 16.—British victory at Festubert. Battle of the San, followed by Russian retreat in West-ern Galicia and the Carpathians. Austrian defeat on the Dniester.
May 17.-Zeppelin raid on Ramsgate.
May 18.-Resignation of Lord Fisher as British First Sea Lord of the Admiralty.
May 19.-Premier Asquith announces formation of Coalition Government in Great Britain.
May 21-23.-Battle of the Artois ; French successes.
May 22.—Italian mobilization begins.
May 23.-Italy declares war on Austria. British submarine sinks two gunboats and two transports in the Sea of Marmora.
May 24.-Great German gas attack in the Ypres salient. Austrian air raid on Venice.
May 25.-Coalition Cabinet formed in Great Britain. American steamer Nebraskan torpedoed off the Irish coast.
May 26.-British battleship Triumph sunk in the Dardanelles. British submarine E11 enters Constantinople harbour and torpedoes troopship. Zeppelin raid on Southend. Italian Government declares blockade of Austrian and Albanian coasts.
May 27.-British auxiliary cruiser Princess Irene sunk by explosion in the Thames. Sir Henry Jackson appointed First Sea Lord of the Admiralty.
May 28.-French success near Souchez.
May 29.-Italians cross the Isonzo river. Reply of Germany to President Wilson's note on the Lusitania.
June 1. Zeppelin raid on London. Capture of Stryj by the Austro-Germans. Defeat of Turks near Kurna, Mesopotamia.
June 3.-Recapture of Przemysl by Austro-German forces. British occupation of Amara, Mesopotamia.
June 4.-Allied failure in attack on Krithia, Gallipoli. Airship raid on East and South-east Coasts of England.
June 6.-Teutonic advance on Lemberg.
June 7.-Lieutenant Warneford destroys Zeppelin between Ghent and Brussels at a height of 6,000 feet. Von Linsingen forces the Dniester at Zuravno. Zeppelin raid on East Coast of England.
June 8.-Italians occupy Monfalcone. W. J. Bryan resigns as United States Secretary of State in disagreement with President Wilson's policy towards Germany.
June 8-11.-Germans driven across the Dniester. June 9.-Italian attack on Goeritz.
June 10.-French air raid on Brussels. President Wilson's second note on the Lusitania. June 11.-Gradisca captured by the Italians.
June 12.-Surrender of Garu, German Cameroons, to Anglo-French forces.
June 13.-Venizelos wins in the Greek elections.
June 15. Zeppelin raid on North-east Coast.
June 17.-Russian evacuation of Lemberg begun.
June 18.-Italians capture Plava. Fano attacked by an Austrian squadron.
June 19.-Metzeral captured by the French.
June 20.-German offensive in the Argonne begins. Zolkieff and Rava Russka captured by Austro-German forces.
June 22.-Austrian entry into Lemberg.
June 28.-Halicz captured by the Germans. Castel-nuovo captured by the Italians.
June 29.-Germans capture Tomashoff. Ngaundere, Central Cameroons, occupied by Allied troops.
July 1.-Fierce fighting in the Argonne.
July 2.-German battleship Pommern torpedoed by British submarine in the Baltic. First Battle of the Isonzo begins. British Munitions Act passed.
July 5.-Russians defeat the Austrians at Krasnik.
July 7.-Germans checked in the advance on War-saw.
July 8.-Italian armoured cruiser Amalfi sunk in the Adriatic by an Austrian submarine.
July 9.-Surrender of last German forces in SouthWest Africa. German reply to the second Lusitania note. Cunard liner Orduna attacked by submarine off Queenstown. Wireless station at Sayville, Long Island, placed under Federal Government.
July 11.-German cruiser Konigsberg sunk in Rufiji river, German East Africa by British river monitor.
July 14.-German advance in the Argonne. Hindenburg's great drive on Poland begun; capture of Przasnysz.
July 15.-Welsh coal strike ; 200,000 men involved.
July 17.-Bulgaria and the Central Powers agree to a secret treaty.
July 18.-Austro-German victory at Krasnostav, in the Warsaw salient. Cruiser Giuseppe Garibaldi sunk by submarine in the Adriatic.
July 20.-Germans capture Windau.
July 21.-British success at Hooge.
July 22.-Ivangorod invested by Austro-Germans. President Wilson's third Lusitania note.
July 23.-Italians defeat Austrians on the Carso front ; Ortona bombarded by Austrian squadron.
July 24.-Poltulsk (Poland) captured by Austro-Germans, and passage of Nareff river forced.
July 25.-Italian occupation of Pelagosa Island, in the Adriatic.
July 26.-British submarine sinks two Turkish gunboats in the harbour of Constantinople. July 28.-Germans force the Vistula between Warsaw and Ivangorod.
July 29.-Russian line on Lublin-Cholm railway forced.
July 30.-Germans employ liquid fire in an attack on Hooge.
July 31.-Lublin captured by Austrian forces. Pope Benedict makes an appeal for peace.
Aug. 4.-British note on the blockade published.
Aug. 5.-Warsaw occupied by Austro-German forces.
Aug. 6.-Ivangorod captured by Austro-Germans. Landing of new army at Suvla Bay, Gallipoli.
Aug. 8.-Heavy fighting in Gallipoli. German armed steamer Meteor blown up after sinking British patrol boat ; H. M. auxiliary cruiser India torpedoed and sunk.
Aug. 9.-British success near Hooge. Turkish battleship Barbarossa sunk by British submarine. Zeppelin raid on East Coast.
Aug. 10.-Fortress of Lomza falls to Austro-Germans. Aug. 10-20.-Ineffective German attacks on Gulf of Riga.
Aug. 12.-Siedlets captured by the Germans. Zeppelin raid on East Coast.
Aug. 14.-Transport Royal Edward sunk in the AEgean Sea ; loss of 1,000 troops.
Aug. 15.-Kovno bombarded by Austro-German forces. National Registry taken in Great Britain.
Aug. 16.-Cabinet crisis in Greece; resignation of the ministry.
Aug. 17.-Kovno falls to Austro-German forces. Zeppelin raid on East Coast.
Aug. 18.-German battleship Moltke torpedoed by British submarine. Zeppelin raid on Lon-don.
Aug. 19.-Fortress of Novo Georgievsk captured by Germans. Steamship Arabic sunk by sub-marine off South Coast of Ireland ; sinking of the Baralong.
Aug. 20.-British airmen destroy German submarine off Ostend.
Aug. 21.-Italy declares war on Turkey. German evacuation of the Gulf of Riga. Venizelos again Greek premier. Cotton declared absolute contraband by the British and French Governments.
Aug. 23.-Ossowietz captured by Austro-German forces. Zeebrugge bombarded by British warships.
Aug. 25.-Brest - Litovsk falls to Austro - German forces ; also Lipsk, near Grodno.
Aug. 27.-" Full satisfaction " to be given the United States for the sinking of the Arabic.
Aug. 29-30.-Russian victories in Galicia.
Aug. 31.-James J. F. Archibald arrives at Falmouth carrying despatches from the German and Austrian embassies at Washington.
Sept. 1.-Capture of Lutsk by Austro-Germans. Lansing assured that Germany agrees that passenger liners should be warned before attack by submarines.
Sept. 2.-Grodno and Brody evacuated by the Russians. The King and Lord Kitchener inspect Canadian troops at Shorncliffe.
Sept. 4.-Allan liner Hesperian sunk off Fastnet.
Sept. 5.-Czar assumes command of Russian armies with Alexieff as Chief of Staff; Grand Duke Nicholas appointed to command Southern armies, Evert succeeding Alexieff on Western Russian front. Doctor Dumba, Austrian ambassador, admits having advanced proposals with a view to crippling American industry.
Sept. 7-9.-Russian victories near Tarnopol, on the Sereth river.
Sept. 8.-Dubno captured by Teutonic forces. Zeppelins drop bombs in the heart of London.
Sept. 9.-Recall of Doctor Dumba requested by the United States Government.
Sept. 10.-Anglo-French financial commission lands in New York.
Sept. 12.-German victory at Meiszagola, Eastern Galicia.
Sept. 13. Zeppelin raid on Eastern Counties; aeroplane raid on Kentish coast.
Sept. 14.-Germans forced across the Strypa river.
Sept. 15.-Capture of Pinsk by Teutonic forces.
Sept. 16.-Prorogation of the Russian Duma.
Sept. 18.-Vilna occupied by the Germans.
Sept. 19.-British troopship Ramazan sunk in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Sept. 21.-Bulgaria begins to mobilize.
Sept. 22.-French airmen drop bombs on royal pal-ace at Stuttgart as reprisal. British capture Loos.
Sept. 23.-Greek mobilization begins; Russians reoccupy Lutsk.
Sept. 27.-Recall of Doctor Dumba agreed to by Austro-Hungarian Government.
Sept. 28.-British capture Kut-el-Amara. Italian battleship Benedetto Brin blown up in harbour of Brindisi.
Sept. 29.-French attack in Champagne at Butte de Tahure and Navarin Farm.
Oct. 3.-Germans recapture greater part of Hohenzollern redoubt.
Oct. 4.-Russian ultimatum to Bulgaria. Allied troops, on invitation of the Greek Government, land at Salonika.
Oct. 5.-Russia notifies Bulgaria that diplomatic relations are at an end. Political crisis in Greece ; resignation of Venizelos ; Zaimis succeeds as premier. Lord Derby appointed Director of Recruiting in Great Britain.
Oct. 9.-Belgrade captured by Austro-German troops. Wumbiagas, in the Cameroons, captured by British forces.
Oct. 11.-Russians penetrate Austrian line on the Strypa river.
Oct. 12.-Bulgaria declares war on Serbia. Diplomatic relations broken between Great Britain and Bulgaria. Greek Government declines to assist Serbia.
Oct. 13.-Shooting of Nurse Edith Cavell. Russians driven across the Strypa. British submarine sinks German merchant ships in the Baltic. Zeppelin raid on London and the Eastern Counties. M. Delcassé, French Foreign Minister, resigns.
Oct. 16.-France declares war on Bulgaria. Five German transports sunk by British submarines in the Baltic.
Oct. 17.—Allied note to Greece ; Great Britain offers Cyprus in return for support of Serbia against Bulgaria. Bulgarians capture Egri-Palanka ; Nish-Uskub railway cut near Vrania.
Oct. 18. Sir C. C. Monro appointed to succeed Sir Ian Hamilton in command in Gallipoli. Italy declares war on Bulgaria. German advance on Riga.
Oct. 20.—Extensive gains by the Germans on the Dvina. Bulgarian occupation of Veles.
Oct. 21.—Russian victory north of Tarnopol. Varna bombarded by Russian fleet. Dedeagatch bombarded by Russian fleet.
Oct. 22.-German success near Dvinsk. Uskub occupied by the Bulgars. German central government assumes control of food supplies.
Oct. 23.-German cruiser Prinz Adalbert sunk by British submarine in the Baltic.
Oct. 24.—La Courtine, in Champagne, captured by the French. Venice bombed by Austrian planes.
Oct. 27.—Viviani ministry resigns in France.
Oct. 28.-Bulgars occupy Pirot. H. M. S. Argyll sunk off East Coast of Scotland; H. M. S. Hythe sunk in collision off Gallipoli. M. Briand becomes French premier and Gallieni war minister.
Nov. 3.—Tibati, in the German Cameroons, occupied by Anglo-French force.
Nov. 4.-Zaimos cabinet resigns in Greece.
Nov. 5.—Kitchener leaves London on visit to the Near East.
Nov. 6.—Bulgars occupy Nish. M. Skoulidos, new Greek premier, announces policy friendly to the Allies.
Nov. 7.-German cruiser Undine sunk by British submarine in the Baltic. Italian steamer Ancona sunk by Austrian submarine.
Nov. 11.-Premier Asquith announces composition of new British War Cabinet. Resignation of Winston Churchill as First Lord of the Admiralty. Greek Chamber dissolved.
Nov. 12.-British hospital ship Anglia sunk by mine in the English Channel.
Nov. 16.-Fall of Prilep, Serbia.
Nov. 17.—British and French war council in Paris.
Nov. 19.-Overrunning of Serbia almost completed.
Nov. 20.-Fall of Novi-Bazar, Serbia. Allies impose economic and commercial restrictions on Greece. Jassin, Uganda, surrenders to German forces.
Nov. 22.—Battle of Ctesiphon, Mesopotamia, won by General Townshend's forces.
Nov. 23.-Note presented to Greece requiring that Allied troops driven across the frontier should not be disarmed and interned.
Nov. 25.—Townshend, beset by overwhelming forces, begins retirement on Kut-el-Amara. Greece gives required guarantees as to security of Allied forces in Macedonia.
Nov. 29.-Bulgarians cut Monastir-Salonika railway.
Nov. 30.-Fall of Mona stir; King Peter escapes. Italy agrees not to sign a separate peace.
Dec. 1.-Teutonic invasion of Montenegro. Recapture of Czernovitz by the Russians.
Dec. 2.—Banyo mountain, German Cameroons, captured by British forces.
Dec. 3.-Battle of the Vardar begins. Captain Boy-Ed, German naval attaché, and Captain von Papen, military attaché, declared no longer acceptable to the United States Government. Joffre appointed Commander-in-Chief of the French armies.
Dec. 4.-Henry Ford, with peace party, sails on the Oscar II.
Dec. 6.-British retirement from Lake Doiran, Northern Serbia. Allied military conference at Paris.
Dec. 7.-President Wilson asks that his hands be strengthened in order to deal with anti-American plotters.
Dec. 8.-Evacuation of Suvla and Anzac (Gallipoli) begun.
Dec. 9.-Von Bethmann-Hollweg declares in the Reichstag that the Allies must ask for peace or the war will go on until they do so.
Dec. 12.-Battle of Vardar ends; Anglo-French withdrawal in Serbia. President Wilson's note on the Ancona published. Last day of Derby Recruiting Scheme in England. Greece concedes Allied demands regarding Salonika.
Dec. 15.-Sir John French resigns command of British forces on the Western front and is succeeded by Sir Douglas Haig. Italian landing in Albania announced.
Dec. 16.-German warship Bremen sunk in the Baltic by a submarine.
Dec. 21.-French success at Hartmannsweilerkopf, Alsace. Managles, in the Cameroons, captured by British forces. Japanese steamer Yasaka Maru sunk in the Mediterranean.
Dec. 28.-Announcement that compulsory service is to be introduced into Great Britain.
Dec. 30.-Armoured cruiser Natal blown up in port. Steamship Persia sunk by torpedo off Crete. Air raid on Salonika.
Dec. 31.-Sir John Simon resigns from British Cabinet on the compulsion issue.