Divisions of the Printing Industry
( Originally Published 1930 )
Types of Shops. There are various types of shops in the printing industry, each of which specializes in a certain kind of work. These are known by the people in the industry as the periodical or magazine shop, the job shop, the newspaper shop, and the book shop. In each of these places, a definite type of work is carried on, and it is very rarely that any one of these shops goes into another field. The job-printing plant may be called the general shop of the industry because it is here that the greatest variety of work is done. These establishments will print anything that is brought to them. As a rule, most of their work is in the advertising field for which they print circulars, announcements, and catalogues. There is enough advertising work to keep many job shops busy. There are other plants where work allied to that of printing is carried on. Some of these places specialize in the making of photo-engravings or "cuts," with which the printer illustrates the matter to be printed; others are engaged in the making of stereotyped and electrotyped plates, which are used upon the various types of presses. Other shops, such as those of the engraver and the lithographer, are engaged in printing also, but their methods vary widely from those described in this chapter.
Divisions in the Shops. Most print shops have three main divisions. In one division the work of composing or "setting up" the type and making up the form is carried on; in another part of the shop the press work is done; and in the third division the binding is performed, which consists in the main of the assembling and the sewing or pasting of the printed product. The newspaper plants usually have a mailing room instead of a bindery; and, in addition, they provide facilities for stereotyping and engraving as a means of speeding up the production of newspapers. Some plants may have a greater subdivision of departments, but the majority are divided as has been indicated above. The composing room and the people who work in it will be discussed in this chapter.