( Originally Published Early 1900's )
Sugar is made from the juice of the sugar cane and the sugar beet. A little is manufactured from the sap of the maple tree. Honey is a kind of sugar and was used for cakes and preserves before cane sugar became known. Glucose is a sugar found in fruits, but it is also made from cornstarch heated with an acid. (See Experiment V, page 44.) it is not so sweet but is cheaper than cane sugar, and is sometimes used as an adulterant. Lactose, or milk sugar, made from milk, is used for infants and in medicines. Maltose, 'or malt sugar, is made from sprouting seed.
In this text the term "cane sugar" is used to include both cane and beet sugar as they are alike in composition and can not be distinguished from each other by general appearance or taste.
Saccharin is a mineral substance many times sweeter than sugar. It is not a food and is injurious to health. It is used as an adulterant in jellies, canned fruits, syrups, and soft drinks.
Pure molasses is made of the cane juice that does not crystallize in the process of sugar making. Sorghum is a syrup made by boiling the juice of sorghum cane. It is used alone or in compound syrup with glucose. Corn syrup is four-fifths glucose and one-fifth cane syrup.
EXPERIMENT I. Take any acid juice, such as apple, grape, or berry. Divide it into three portions and sweeten the first one to taste, using granulated sugar; add the same quantity or sugar to the second portion and cook for five minutes; add the same quantity of crystallized glucose to the third portion; taste each and see which is the sweetest. Why do we sweeten acid fruits at the end of the cooking period? Which is sweeter, cane sugar or glucose. What is the price per pound of each?
Review tests for Grape Sugar, Experiment II, page 44, for Cane Sugar, Experiment IV, page 44, and for changing starch to sugar, Experiment V, page 44. Exhibit samples of glucose and milk sugar to class.
Food Value. Sugar is an almost pure form of carbohydrate, having barely a trace of water. It yields eighteen hundred and sixty calories per pound and is a highly concentrated food, but unless it is very much diluted when eaten it may irritate the lining of the stomach. A diet too rich in sugar disturbs the digestion, overburdens the liver, and often causes a very yellow skin. Do not eat sweets between meals, but take a small allowance for dessert occasionally. Sugar is very fattening, and it has been estimated that if a person eats one lump of sugar per day in excess of what his body can properly utilize he will gain forty pounds in weight in ten years. Children should not eat much sugar. It does not build bone and muscle and will destroy their appetite for tissue-building foods.
EXPERIMENT II. Add enough cold water to one-fourth cup of sugar to 'dissolve it; note the amount required. EXPERIMENT III. Repeat Experiment II, using hot water.
EXPERIMENT IV. Mix solutions from Experiments II'and III. Add one tablespoonful of water and boil until thick enough for a table syrup. Bottle and let stand for several days. What is the result? Sugar syrups crystallize; rock candy is made of a heavy syrup turned into pans in which threads are stretched, the crystals forming on the threads.
Syrup for frostings and candies should not be stirred while cooking, as crystals will form. Glucose and acids prevent crystallization. Cane sugar when heated with an acid is partly changed to glucose which does not form large crystals. To what candies are acids added? What acids are used? We seldom use glucose in the pure form. Corn syrup, however, which is largely glucose, is added in making some candies.
Some candies are almost as rich in sugar as granulated sugar is ; others contain more water and also starch and flour. As candy is a concentrated food it disturbs the digestion if eaten in quantity. A small portion, however, taken at the end of a meal is allowable. Home-made candy is usually of better quality than the commercial article and is also cheaper.
In making any cooked candy except barley sugar, or caramelized sugar candy one must be able to tell when the sugar is cooked enough. Sugar is cooked with water or other liquid, and whenever enough water is cooked out the sugar crystallizes or granulates. If more than the given quantity of liquid is used in fudge, will it need longer cooking . Why ? Candies are often spoiled by too much cooking,. but if cooked too little they will not be firm.
TEMPERATURES FOR COOKING SUGAR
Small thread 215° F. Soft crack 290° F.
Long thread 217° F. Hard crack 310° F.
Soft ball 238° F. Caramel 350° F.
Hard ball 248° F.