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Clothing Of The Sixteenth Century

( Originally Published 1928 )



THE ITALIANS

MEN

MANY copied the short-waisted, knee-length German coat century, with hanging sleeves. The stomacher or placcard was of a different color; above it a pleated shirt, low necked and edged with a tiny ruffle. Others wore a doublet with large puffed sleeves and slashed hose over which were worn, both above and below the knee, garters of silk and gold. A shoulder cape with a high standing collar was popular. Broad-toed velvet shoes were worn.

The bragetto, a jeweled pouch, hung at the waist.

Mantles with large armholes through which the puffed sleeve of the doublet could be passed were sometimes made with loose hanging sleeves thrown back over the shoulders like drapery.

The hair was short. The hat known as the "Milan Bonnet" was followed by one of black velvet peculiar to Spain.

WOMEN

The Virago Sleeves.—These sleeves, very large and slashed open from shoulder to wrist, giving glimpses of rich lining, were caught together at intervals by jewels. Points, and a series of puffs, were used as trimming about the armhole. A full inner sleeve of white lawn or other material was gathered to a tiny wrist ruffle. Occasionally the outer sleeve was lengthened to reach the floor and hung free, or else was thrown back over the shoulders displaying a rich contrasting lining. This fashion soon spread to all countries.

Sleeves were also made in a series of puffs, very large at the shoulder and gradually diminishing in size as they neared the wrist. Slashing and jeweling appeared on the puffs.

Dresses were cut with the waist running down to a long point over the abdomen; the skirt very full and trained. Most of the gowns had a high standing collar across the shoulders, having its center point sometimes bent forward over the head; a fashion of Roman origin which quickly spread to Padua, Venice and France.

Venetian women wore veils suspended from the head and hanging to the feet, their corners sometimes caught up under the point of the bodice.

Turbans of cloth of gold were attached to a band or diadem set with precious stones.

The hair was drawn straight back from the brow, coiled and adorned with jeweled bands or ropes of pearls.

An early sixteenth-century portrait seen in the Poldi-Pezzoli Collection, Milan, shows a tiny cap of gauze fitted over the ear; to it is attached a string of pearls which connects with the rest of the headdress. Perhaps the lady had "cauliflower" ears, or it may have been a passing fad of the moment. The Milan bonnet was popular. Long neck chains were of gold with beautiful feathered, gold handled fans attached; the Ventian fan was much used,

Small ruffs appeared on some high-necked dresses.

"Two Gentlemen of Verona" takes place in Italy early in the sixteenth century; "Much Ado about Nothing" is of the same period, while "All's Well That Ends Well" is dated 1557, the time of Cosimo de' Medici. Part of the "Winter's Tale" is laid in Italy during the first half of the century. Victor Hugo's tragedy of "Angelo" is dated 1547 and "Lucrezia Borgia," 1500.

At this time the cardinals wore red cloaks with large flat broad-brimmed hats whose hanging cords were knotted on the chest. A cape of ermine could be seen through the cloak opening.

Prelates had long black gowns with lace tunics to the hips and capes to the elbow, a large black cloak and a skull cap of the same hue.

The dalmatica was a long, full-sleeved tunic in color, fringed at the bottom and worn over a white one called the alb. The latter had a band of embroidery across the front at the feet. The chasuble was cone-shaped with a hole just large enough to pass the head through, so that the cloth fitted the shoulders smoothly; the sides were gathered up in folds over the arms when the priest celebrated. This fullness was later cut away.

THE GERMANS

MEN

The petti-cote had hanging sleeves. Above it a very high full shirt was gathered about the neck.

The Milan Bonnet.—This style, despite the name, is said to have originated in Germany, and quickly spread to Italy and other countries. A cap of cloth or velvet was worn cocked on one side of the head over a caul of cloth of gold; the edges of its brim were often slashed into square flaps which could be bent back and forth at will. The trimming consisted of a bunch of feathers ornamented with gold spangles and jewels, or a cluster of points or tags placed on one side.

Points (also called Tags).—Ribbons with metal tags attached formed a decoration which lasted for a couple of hundred years.

A large bag cap had a wide fur edge.

Low shoes with slashed square toes, also high ones, were cut in bent-back points about the top, thus displaying a colored lining.

Enormous coats had wide fur collars which completely covered the shoulders; revers of fur continued to the knees in front. The sleeves were either cut off at the wide armhole or continued in hanging affairs, with openings for the tunic-covered arm to pass through.

The soldiers were subjected to an enormous amount of "slashing" and presented a bewildering mass of color. This was particularly true of the Bavarian troops. Large hats had their brims cut in squares; great plumes in two different colors surmounted the crown. The legs were striped in different colors, perhaps one in red and white, the other yellow and red ; the shoe on the first mentioned might be blue, that on the other, red. Large bows of ribbon, possibly blue, were placed at the knees. Besides red, blue and yellow, another color was worked into the doublet and shirt.

The soldiers' tights received a new touch which was adopted by the citizen : slashes (the French being blamed for starting the fashion) were cut at the knees and about the hips and the openings filled in with puffings of an-other color.

Helmets were decked with enormous plumes ; the same decoration was used on the horses of the cavalry. Full plate armor was worn. A gold chain about the neck signified a badge of office throughout the century.

WOMEN

The gowns were very much as before, full trained, bordered and held up to show an undergown ; the sleeves presented a series of puffs, with one, slashed, called a "mahoitre," hanging about the armhole. A high wired collar was placed about the neck. Wide borders and slashing were used unsparingly.

A very coarse gold caul studded with pearls was worn over the hair, which was braided and arranged to stand out from the head in a semicircle across the back.

Enormous hats, wide brimmed, covered with ostrich plumes and bound with two colors (an exaggerated form of the Milan bonnet) were set well back on the head over the caul.

The barbe of linen and various other materials, resembling a man's beard where it covered the face below the nose, was very fashionable. A cap like the Mary Stuart was popular during the middle of the century; also ruffs.

Men and women carried gloves in the left hand.

MEN

In the Musee d'Artillerie in the Invalides at Paris is a large collection of Italian, French and Bavarian armor of the sixteenth century.

Men wore the petti-cote and slashed tights ; doublets and trunk-hose ; doublets and French breeches ; and ruffs so large that eating in a seemly manner was difficult.

The Milan bonnet was followed by a black velvet hat with a small stiff brim, its crown tapering to a peak.

Small Italian capes with high standing collars were suspended from the shoulders; there also appeared the collarless one of the Spaniards, accompanied by a ruff and the black velvet hat.

By the end of the century, the hair fell in lovelocks at one or both sides of the face.

The rabat was a neckband with flaps falling in front over the costume and was worn chiefly by French ecclesiastics.

WOMEN

For the first half of the century, a gown trailed on the floor all around with sleeves much puffed from shoulders to elbows, from whence they tapered to fit the wrists. The high neck was finished with a small ruff.

The French hood was of black silk early in the century. In the middle, when the black velvet hat, exactly like that of the men, was cocked on the head, the hair was pulled back from the forehead and dressed very high. The Mary Stuart cap was, of course, worn.

During the second half of the century came into fashion the farthingale (in French "vertugadin" and in old French "vertugade"—probably corrupted from "vertu-garde," which, translated, would mean virtue guard). The gown then was much slashed, carrying an enormous standing collar of lace stretched on wires. Catherine de' Medici insisted that all ladies of the court reduce their waists to a circumference of thirteen inches ; accordingly, an instrument of torture made of wooden sticks was placed around the figure and tightened to such a degree that the ribs overlapped and the abdomen protruded. This corset was largely responsible for the stiffness and ugliness of the farthingale period.

Feather fans with mirrors set in the center, also the pomander sixteenth century,dangled from a chain about the waist. Handkerchiefs were carried in the hand.

THE SPANISH

The Spaniards of this time wore black velvet hats and shoulder capes, pointed beards, curled mustaches, close cut hair, handkerchiefs, silk stockings and virago sleeves. Earrings were affected by Spanish noblemen, and the picado, a flaring and enormous ruff, was worn in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

Famous people of dramatic interest on the Continent were Rabelais, Montaigne, Rubens, Tintoretto, Titian, Romano, Ribera, Holbein, Del Sarto, El Greco, Veronese, Vos, Jan Brueghel, Benvenuto Cellini, Cervantes, Lope de Vega, Don Carlos (1545-1568, son of Philip II of Spain, a hero of tragedies by Schiller and Alfieri), Charles V (Emperor of Germany and Spain), Duke of Guise, Catherine de' Medici (responsible for the Massacre of Saint Bartholomew, 1572), Francis I (King of France, 1515-1547), and Martin Luther.

The Theatre.—Early in the sixteenth century the drama had been greatly encouraged in Rome by Pope Leo X. Many traveling companies of Italian actors came to France, where a craze for dramatic productions had existed since early in the fifteenth century. Performances were commanded by Catherine de' Medici at Blois and Henry IV at Fountainebleau. The Italian players seem to have become an established mode, for several companies were in Paris at the end of the century.

THE ENGLISH: HENRY VIII, 1509-1547

MEN

Early in this reign the full, high-waisted coat reached nearly to the knees, with shoulders padded to a great width. Large sleeves were made of material matching the waistcoat or stomacher, the latter much slashed and showing through the open front of the coat. Sleeves were fashioned either in one with the petti-cote, or were integral garments that could be detached, so providing variety. The shirt, called by some the partlet, the baggy breeches and sleeves, were all slashed and puffed. The lining, visible through the slashes, was dubbed "pullingsout."

The shirt, displayed above the waistcoat and sometimes through its slashes, had a plain band of one or two inches in width placed above its neck by Henry VIII.

The slashing about the knees and hips of the Swiss soldiery led to separating the tights into two garments, i.e., hose and breeches, or, in common parlance, the nether and upper stocks, respectively. A later designation was trunk-hose and trunks.

The Milan bonnet, trimmed with a profusion of feathers, was worn over a skull cap. Night caps of black velvet were used by the Tudors.

The flat-soled sandals of the previous reign were still popular; also the shoes, whose toes became so broad their width was restricted by proclamation to six inches.

The hair was long; that is, curled inward like a bob until 1521, when Henry ordered all his attendants and courtiers to "poll their heads." Beards and mustaches were worn.

A cane was carried by Henry VIII, its top serving as a receptacle for perfume or snuff. The King had a one-handed watch suspended about his neck. Minute hands did not exist until the seventeenth century.

The petti-cote gave way to the doublet, its high neck finished with a small ruffle; long sleeved, with a short skirt below its waistline, allowing the trunks to show. The trunks and sleeves were decorated with long slits or slashes.

The Order of the Garter.—A surcoat of crimson velvet was worn with a black Milan bonnet of the same material ; the crimson velvet hood was thrown over the left shoulder. About 1521 Henry bestowed the great and the lesser George on the knights; this jewel was suspended from a gold chain upon the breast until late in the reign, when a black ribbon was substituted.

WOMEN

The square-cut bodice was laced tight, the sleeves fitting the arms for several inches below the shoulders, then widening to form a square cuff turned back to show an undersleeve of white. The gown was open in front, revealing an underskirt. Some skirts were cut round after a Dutch fashion worn by Anne of Cleves. The train of Catherine Parr, however, was two yards long.

The Pomander.—All waists were encircled by girdles from which dangled these trinkets, hollow balls filled with perfume. In various shapes, the fashion lasted through-out the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

The headdress retained the hood as in the previous reign, but its peaked effect gave place to a rounded front, held away from the forehead by a pad. Anne Boleyn wore a Milan bonnet; all of the King's other wives wore the hood with the exception of Anne of Cleves, who is represented in a caul. A bongrace was a frontlet placed on the hood to prevent sunburn ; Anne Boleyn had one and this device was seen during the entire century.

During the eighth year of this reign it was ordained that "duchesses and countesses and all higher estates may be barbed above the chin, every one not being under the degree of a baroness may wear a barbe about the chin; and all other gentlewomen beneath the throat-goyll" (gullet).

Shakespeare's "Henry VIII" is dated 1521, at which time there were many laws governing the use of materials. All persons not possessing an income of two hundred marks a year were forbidden to wear velvet, marten fur, chains, bracelets or collars of gold. Their sons and heirs, however, might clothe themselves in black velvet or damask, tawny russet or camlet. It was necessary to have one hundred marks per annum to appear in satin and damask.

Pleated shirts decorated with gold, silver or silk might be worn by knights. Any one of lesser degree than a baron or knight's son or heir, could not wear crimson or blue velvet, embroidered clothes or "garments bordered with gold sunken work."

The fur of the black jennet was for royal use alone, while only those above the rank of viscount could wear sables.

Beerbohm Tree as Cardinal Wolsey wore scarlet satin with a cap of black velvet. There is a famous portrait of Wolsey by Holbein An inventory of the Cardinal's effects mentions clothes made of the following materials : velvet, satin, damask, taffeta, grosgrain, sarsenet and caffa (a rich East Indian stuff).

Other fabrics in use at the beginning of the sixteenth century which previously have not been mentioned were : camlet, wool and silk mixed, but originally of camel's hair; Russell's or Brighton nap, a black woolen cloth resembling baise but with knots scattered over its surface; grogram, woolen cloth like grosgrain; taffeta, a thin silk and a luxury.

"Branched" was a term applied to the very large pat-terns representing fruit, flowers and vines used on satin and brocade at the beginning of the Tudor period.

Bristol red, not so bright as scarlet, was a favorite color throughout the century.

The lower classes had cogware, a cloth like frieze; rug, coarse woolen stuff for the very poor; wadmoll, an inferior fabric; shanks, cheap fur trimming from legs of kids or sheep. Canvas shirts were worn. Damicaster was the name given a short cloak worn by women of the middle class. A flocket was a loose, wide-sleeved gown used by old women. Felt hats were worn. Russet clothes, of reddish brown or gray, were the ordinary garb of country people.

The Theatre.—During the sixteenth century, characters from the Bible were mixed up with the allegorical figures so popular in the earlier forms of the drama. Some attempt at costuming was made for Richard Gib-son, an actor during the reign of Henry VII, writes about the dresses used for Venus and Beauty. An inventory dated 1516, time of Henry VIII, speaks of a long garment fashioned of cloth of gold and "tynsell," worn, by the actor playing a prophet on Palm Sunday.

EDWARD VI, 1547-1553; MARY ("BLOODY"; married Philip of Spain), 1553-1558

MEN

The doublet was in a stage of transition with the sleeves much smaller. A tiny ruff was introduced on it through Spanish influence, which also was responsible for the fashion of the short collarless shoulder cape reaching to a little below the waist.

WOMEN

The hair, with the exception of a small puffing at the sides, was well covered by the headdress known as the "Mary Stuart."

Mufflers (barbes) were worn for many years,. and their use not confined to widows and old women by any means, for Anne Boleyn had one in her wardrobe. Mary, Queen of Scots, wore one fashioned of black satin in 1564 and Elizabeth in 1579 was presented with a barbe made of purple velvet "embroidered with Pearls and Venetian lace trimmed."

ELIZABETH, 1558-1603; THE ELIZABETHAN PERIOD MEN

The Doublet.—Close fitting, with epaulets hanging over the armholes, the doublet was a jacket closed to the ruff; the waistline dipped to a deep point in front, while below a short ruffle or skirt extended to a depth of three or four inches. In time this ruffle was cut at regular intervals into a series of square tabs, giving a much trimmer look to the garment. The sleeves, if sewn in, were usually tight fitting; an epaulet, commonly known as a wing, puff-wing or welt, always finished off the armhole. When virago sleeves were worn, they were tied in with points (see the Germans, sixteenth century, p. 151), which gave the necessary trimming at the shoulder. Decoration in some form around the armhole lasted until coats came into fashion. The points or tags were also known as aiglets or aiguilettes and sometimes represented small figures, which explains why Grumio called them "aglet-babies." The doublet, usually of two thicknesses and wadded, was worn over corsets by the dandies. In 1583 its front was stuffed just above the waistline with four or five pounds of rags, tow or anything handy until it resembled the abdomen of Mr. Punch. These inflated affairs were called pease-cod-bellied, or shotten-bellied, doublets. They were often fashioned of the most expensive materials and much slashed.

The Jerkin.—Of leather, limited to eight tabs below the waistline, and sometimes confounded with the doublet over which it was often worn for extra protection, this garment was used by servants and workingmen; also by soldiers during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, when it was made of buff leather.

The Mandillion.—A loose coat, buttoned or open, was sometimes placed over a doublet ; it had two broad wings over the shoulders, with hanging sleeves.

The Jornet.—This loose cloak was used for traveling.

Gaily (or Gallic) Breeches.—Wide trunks were worn by every one early in the reign. They were made of broad bands of material running vertically, with a puffing of another color showing between suggesting stripes, Originally the hose was seen through slashes in the trunks. For stage use it is customary to make the trunks with alternate vertical bands of different materials as a closed separate garment. During eight years, ending in 1583, it was fashionable to pad or bombast these breeches to an enormous size with a stuffing of tow, rags, bran, etc.

French Breeches.—This variety of French hose, which became almost as popular in England as in France, fitted the leg tight to below the knee, where they were finished with canions, i.e., rolls of material or puffing decorated with slashes.

Venetian Breeches.—Well fitting and finished below the knee with points, the material was covered with panes (diamond-shaped openings) which rendered a handsome lining visible. Gold laces and often jewel insets further added to the cost of this variety. Velvet, silk and damask were utilized.

For older men a long coat, tight fitting about the waist and retaining the long hanging sleeves of the petti-cote, was worn buttoned up the front or left open allowing the trunks to show.

Footgear.—Shoes were pointed in the toe and made of variously colored leather, velvet or "taffety"; white, black, red and green were popular. Early in the reign they were decorated with slashes, which often were studded with jewels. Later, ribbon roses on high-heeled low shoes were worn. Bottom, in "Midsummer Night's Dream," tells all of his fellow actors to buy new ribbon for their pumps. This form of shoe continued in use for servants, especially footmen, during the seventeenth century.

High leather boots reached to above the knee and were pricked in patterns; their tops were cut in squares to form a fancy edging; fur also was used for this purpose.

Hats.—Beaver, velvet and "taffety" were used for the rich and felt for the poor. With small curved brims and bell crowns, or flat and round, they were usually set off by a feather placed in front or to one side.

The Ruff.—At first merely a small ruching about the neck of a doublet, by 1582 the ruff had grown to a width of nine inches and was dubbed the "cartwheel." (The credit for introducing the ruff is given a certain princess who, living in sunny Spain, placed a ruffle about her neck to conceal a goiter.) Made of cambric and lawn, it was starched in different colors, blue, white, purple and yellow being fashionable. A craze for the last hue developed ; even when a Mrs. Turner, wearing a yellow ruff, the preparation for the coloring of which she had in-vented, was hanged at Tyburn—though not for that reason !—it occasioned only a slight lapse in its popularity.

The Supportasse.—An arrangement of wires covered with gold, silver or silk thread was worn around the neck to support the ruff. The pleat of a ruff was called a purl. Poking-sticks of wood or bone, and later of steel, were used to push out its crumpled folds.

The Piccadilly.—A high ruff edged with lace was named after the Spanish picado (in Old French "piccadille," which became in English "pickadil" and, finally, "piccadilly" ).

The Falling Band (or Rabato).—A plain white collar was sometimes composed of three sections laid one over another and attached to a linen band. Ben Jonson, the actor Burbage, Milton, Drake and many others are rep-resented wearing it.

The Hair.—This was brushed back from the forehead and a bit over the ears when accompanied by the pointed beard. The dandies copied foreign modes, there being several to choose from : short, round and curled like the Italian's, long at the ears and curled like the Spanish, or French lovelocks tied with ribbons and lying on the shoulders. So much fuss was made over the hair that gentle-men carried pocket glasses.

After 156o beards came again into favor and men were very particular about the cut. Of the many varieties, the pointed, the stiletto and the spade were the most popular. The pique-devant was a full beard trimmed to a fine point. Dyeing was fashionable; Bottom speaks of "straw-colored, orange-tawny, purple ingrain, French crown color and perfect yellow beards." Pasteboard cases were used to preserve their shape at night. Mustaches, called also mowchatowes and mouchaches, were worn in various styles; some brushed carefully up from the lip and curled, others drooping. Periwigs were in use. Faces were whitened with chalk.

Jewelry and Ornamentation.—Rings, chains about the shoulders, jewels in the hat, and earrings (a Spanish fashion), often in only one ear, were all worn. Ear-strings resembling black shoe laces were tied through a hole in the ear. Portraits show, and old plays mention, them. In one of the latter a man is dragged out of a tavern brawl by his earstring. This freakish fashion was indulged in also by women. A rose stuck over the left ear was the badge of a lover.

In 1577 pocket watches were brought to England from Germany, but worn only by the wealthy.

The toothpick was a fashionable accessory.

Order of the Garter.—A high crowned hat was worn during this reign.

WOMEN

A well fitting bodice with a small ruff and long, hanging, winglike sleeves which reached the ground was attached to a full skirt early in the reign; this combination opened in front to show a contrasting color. The accompanying headdress was of the style known as Mary, Queen of Scots, with a long veil depending.

In 1583 the bodice was stuffed like the men's doublet. Girdles of gold cord had pomanders attached; feather fans were set with mirrors.

The ill-fated beauty, Mary, Queen of Scots, wore a rich trained gown of silk and velvet at her execution; a long linen veil hung from her head.

The Farthingale.—In 1590 a huge bone wheel, suspended from the waist by ribbons, was used to swell the figure to enormous proportions about the hips. Over it were laid several stiff linen underskirts. A petticoat of heavy stuff such as brocade often embroidered in silver, and an overgown of some material affording a contrast in color, were then adjusted. The bodice of the latter fitted over a stomacher held in shape by the stiff straight line of the busk, i.e., the carved wood corset of the time, compared with which the high Victorian affair that called down so much condemnation in the nineteenth century, must have been a downy nest. To help support the farthingale, padded rolls five inches long called "bearers" were placed at the back of the figure on each hip. A corset with stomacher and bearers attached is in the South Kensington Museum, London. The overgown opened down the front to display the petticoat, the material of which was duplicated in the inner portion of the virago sleeves belonging to this costume.

A breast-knot, a bow of ribbon, was worn at the top of the stomacher.

Borders of lace and embroidery formed an edging known as purles.

The ruff was gradually displaced by a wide spreading collar of lace stretched on wires, opening in front and standing well off from the shoulders to show the neck. Shoulder capes had high standing collars.

Gloves had embroidered backs and were heavily per-fumed.

The Palisade.—A frame of wire or wicker, necessitated by the high ruff, was used. Over this was laid the hair, frizzed, curled and rolled away from the forehead, the highest point of the erection being known as the topknot. Dyeing, in imitation of Queen Elizabeth's fiery locks, was fashionable; so also were red wigs. Spangles, bugles and beads were used for decoration.

Headgear and Ornamentation.—Hats, corresponding in shape to those of the men, were trimmed with bunches of feathers held by jewels. The French hood of silk or velvet tightly framing the face was popular, also the caul of gold wire, cloth of gold, pearls, etc. A stuff called cyprus was used for veils.

Make-up was used by fashionables of both sexes, calling down the condemnation of clergy and the ever busy reformers. Masks were used at the theatre and on the streets.

Jewelry was worn in profusion. Several ropes of pearls, or double gold chains, were placed about the throat with the standing lace collars ; such necklaces were called "esclavage." The stomacher was covered with jewels.

Handkerchiefs were also referred to as napkins and mokadors ; those carried by children, muckinders

The Venetian flag fan became a fad; other fans of feathers, straw or silk were circular in form with precious stones set in the handles attached to gold and silver chains.

Footgear.—Shoes of velvet or leather had pointed toes, their heels growing high by the end of the reign. Slashing, embroidery in gold or silver, and jeweled decoration were much used on them.

Moiles.—The cork-soled shoes from two to ten inches in height were borrowed from Venice, where they were known as the chopines. Shakespeare mentions the chopine in "Hamlet," although this is an anachronism.

Pantoflles (also pantobles) were slippers worn over velvet shoes in the street.

Night caps of gold and silver lace decorated with spangles were in Queen Elizabeth's wardrobe. Anne Boleyn's "night dress" of black satin is said to have been a dressing gown.

Materials.—Calico was a cotton fabric imported in 1549 from Calcutta; cambric, from Cambrai, France, used for handkerchiefs, ruffs, collars and shirts; calimanco, glazed linen; tuftafata, a taffety with nap like velvet; chintz, printed India cotton; corduasoy, thick silk; muslin, thin Eastern stuff; changeable taffeta; jersey; holland (holland cloth), a linen used for shirts by the rich ; mokkadoes, woolen cloth ; beads, in great demand for ornamentation ; bombasin, silk and wool mixed at first, afterward all silk and called bombazine, manufactured at Norwich in 1575; boratto, another name for bombasin ; bone lace, originally made in Flanders with bobbins of sheep's trotters, or fishbones as pins (disputed) ; parchment lace, resembling guipure; sussapine, a silk; broadcloth ; carrels, silk and worsted mixed ; cash-mere, delicate stuff from Cashmere ; cheverill, kid leather.

Stockings were manufactured of worsted in 1564; by 1596 they were of silk, swanskin (thin, fleecy stuff), ere-well, "thred," "jarnsey," etc.

Patterns were punched or pounced (pricked) on leather.

Coventry blue, also a shade called bice, was very popular.

For the lower classes, buffin, a coarse cloth ; burels, brown cloth ; tawdry, cheap lace ; kersey, narrow, woolen cloth; kerseymere; galloon, worsted lace in colors, originally used by peasants (later of gold and silver and worn as decoration by the rich) ; lockram, a coarse linen; caddis, a trimming of worsted and crewell used by servants ; caddis garters worn by country folk ; vandelas, varieties of canvas ; budge, fur still used on city livery.

"Guarded" meant edged with, or having the seams covered by guards of gold and silver lace.

The middle class was permitted to wear velvet only in sleeves.

Mutch was an old woman's cap ; cassock, a long-sleeved garment buttoned up the front, part of a rustic's dress resembling a smock (also in the seventeenth century) ; shoes, "well-nailed" in 1658; dudde, a coarse woolen wrapper (hence "duds").

Armor was painted russet in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries to save cleaning and to protect it from rust.

Some people of dramatic interest during the century were: Martin Luther, Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn, Thomas Cranmer, Sir John Moore, Jane Seymour, Anne of Cleves, Catherine Howard, Catherine Parr, Thomas Cromwell, Cardinal Wolsey, Pope Leo X, Shakespeare, Spenser, Bacon, Francis Drake, Lady Jane Grey, Mary, Queen of Scots, Sir Walter Raleigh, Lord Darnley, Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, Sir Martin Frobisher, David Rizzio, Bothwell, and the Earl of Essex.

The Theatre.—Prior to the reign of Elizabeth, theatrical performances were given by royal command in castles, on flimsy platforms erected at fairs, or in the court-yards of inns. Productions of this kind were still being made at the Boar's Head, Ludgate Hill, The Bull, etc., when the first building for housing the drama was erected and called "The Theatre," in 1570.

Some attempt at correctness in costuming was made, for an old inventory of a theatre of Shakespeare's time mentions among other things "a freyer's gown of grey," cap and bells for fools, and "clown's sewtes."

The actors painted their faces in imitation of the fashion of the day.



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