Mutton And Lamb
( Originally Published 1904 )
A large, heavy animal, two or three years old, makes the finest mutton; the flesh should be bright red, with firm, white fat: Good South-down mutton has always been considered the best.
Mutton and lamb are generally quartered, as is done with beef. The fore-quarter is divided into head, neck, shoulder, breast, and rack; the hind-quarter into leg and loin. The loin is divided into chops. The hind-leg and the flesh back of the hip-bone, together, are called leg of mutton. The shoulder, which is not expensive, has the fore-leg and sometimes two or more of the ribs left on for roasting. The finest of roasts, consisting of the whole upper back part of the sheep, is called saddle of Muth.
The best cuts for broiling.are the rib or loin chops.
Spring lamb is so much smaller than 'Mutton that it is sold and cooked only in halves and quarter's; the "fore-giiartel" being consideied the more choice.
Our lamb chops do not come from spring lamb, but from small, thin mutton, or young sheep.
Chops are of several varieties. The South-down chops are fully two inches in thickness, while the usual American chop is not more than half an inch thick. Loin and rack chops are prepared exactly as a -broiled steak. , When the loin chops are trimmed We call them French chops. The daintiest Way' of serving these French chops is in the form in which they are called masked chops. When the chops have been quickly broiled for five minutes, and while they are still warm, place on one side of each chop a little mound of nicely seasoned, boiled mashed potatoes, beaten until very light. Then dip the chop, with this addition, into beaten egg, cover it with bread crumbs, and dip for a couple of minutes into hot fat. A paper " holder " is put over the end of each chop bone, and the chops are laid on a platter with a mound of peas beneath; the dish includes really two vegetables, delicately served, besides the chops.
Sheep's heads are prepared and served, two at a time, just in the manner of the single calf's head.
The kidneys, liver, and heart, which are delicious, and far less expensive; are also served as are those of the calf.
The best veal comes from a two-months-old calf. The meat is flesh-colored; and firm, with clear, white fat. One should never buy veal that is white and lean; it is not safe to eat young veal.
It is divided almost as mutton is. The hind-quarter cuts are the finest. Chops and steak, or pieces for roasts, come from the loin and the leg. Veal cutlets are slices cut from the leg, containing a. round section of the leg-bone.
The sweetbreads, sold in pairs, are a part of the digestive viscera, which accounts for their being so digestible. A pair is composed of a " heart " and a " throat " sweetbread. The former is the short, firm one, preferable when to be served whole. The other is long, and full of membrane, but just as desirable if it be served creamed, or picked small.
However prepared, it is necessary to wash and parboil, or boil, sweetbreads when they first come from the market, as they are in danger of " spoiling " quickly. It is then possible to keep them for a day or two in a cold spot.
Fresh pork is firm, and of a pale red color; the fat is white. Good, fat salt pork is white, or slightly pinkish. One is obliged to be very careful in selecting pork as the speckled meat is often diseased. At best, pork is very difficult-to digest; even in the use of breakfast bacon care should be exercised.
Pork for chops, or roasting, comes from the ribs and the loin.
When salted and smoked, the hind-legs are called ham; the flank bacon.
Sausages are made of chopped trimmings, fat and lean, packed in cleaned intestines.