Cereals And Beans
( Originally Published 1926 )
134 Q. How many varieties of rice are there and how do they differ?
A. There are three varieties : (1) Head, or Honduras Style, (2) Japan Style, and (3) Blue Rose.
The Honduras Style is a long, slender bean and the Japan Style is a short, round bean, while the Blue Rose is sort of medium between the two. Japan Style rice is seldom found in grocery stores. Blue Rose rice is the popular seller on account of its lower price, due to the fact that this variety yields more bushels per acre.
135 Q. Why is the word "style" used after the words "Honduras" and "Japan" in labeling rice?
A. Because these rices, while grown from seed originally brought from Honduras and Japan, are grown in the United States, and the Government does not allow a rice to be labeled or sold as "Honduras" or "Japan" unless it was actually grown in those places. (The designations "Honduras Rice" and "Japan Rice" are allowable if followed by such statements as "Grown in the United States," "Grown in Mexico," etc.)
136 Q. Why is Blue Rose rice so called?
A. It was so named by the Louisiana planter who discovered this variety of rice and who wanted to give it a distinctive and unusual name. (There is no blue rose.)
137 Q. How is rice polished?
A. The polishing of rice is effected by friction against the rice of pieces of moose hide or sheepskin. The latter are tanned and worked to a high degree of softness, loosely tacked around a revolving double cylinder of wood and wire gauze. The friction removes the outer layers of the grain, which gives the rice its pearly luster. The polishing process improves the commercial value of the rice, but decreases its food value, for the outer layers of the rice grain are the most nutritious part of the rice.
13S Q. What kind of rice is the so-called brown rice?
A. This is rice just as it is taken out of the hulls, before being polished. Has a brownish color and a somewhat nutty flavor. While much more nourishing than the polished rice, the brown rice, also known as natural rice, is not much in demand on account of its unattractive appearance.
139 Q. What is wild rice and for what is it used?
A. Wild rice, also known as Indian rice and as Water rice, is the seed of a tall water grass, growing in shallow waters. The grains are long and thin and are greenish in color. This rice is very nourishing and has a peculiar flavor which is relished by many. While it is chiefly used as dressing with roast game, it is also used in the preparation of many other dishes.
140 Q. What is the difference between rice flour and rice polish?
A. Rice flour is produced by grinding the rice; rice polish is the product of the soft brushes used in polishing rice when the brown coating is removed to produce the familiar white rice of commerce. Rice polish is a highly concentrated food, more nutritious than rice it-self, because it contains valuable chemical ingredients from the surface of the grain.
141 Q. What is the difference between "Flake" hominy, "Granulated" hominy, and "Pearl" hominy?
A. The accompanying photographic illustrations show clearly the difference between these three forms of dry hominy.
142 Q. What are the different grades of barley?
A. Barley is graded in size from Fancy No. 0000, the finest, to Common No. 4, the coarsest. The grades are: Fancy 0000, Fancy 000, Fancy 00, Fancy 0, Common 1, Common 2, Common 3, Common 4.
143 Q. What is meant by "Pearl" barley?
A. Barley grains that have undergone a polishing process.
144 Q. What is meant by "Scotch Style" barley? A. Coarsely ground barley grains.
145 Q. What is meant by "water-ground" corn-meal?
A. The term "water-ground" is used in connection with cornmeal manufactured by the old-fashioned process of grinding the entire kernel, germ and all, and does not necessarily imply that the cornmeal was produced in a mill driven by water.
146 Q. What is meant by "steel-cut" oatmeal?
A. Oat grains (not rolled oats) that have been cut into particles by special cutting machines.
147 Q. What is meant by "Scotch Style" oat-meal?
A. Coarsely ground oat grains (not rolled oats).
148 Q. What is farina?
A. Farina, also known as semolina, is the gluten part of the wheat kernel, its choicest and most nutritious part. It consists of what are known as "middlings"—the hard particles of the wheat kernel, left in sifting the flour—and differs from flour in that it can be cooked as a breakfast dish, which, of course, is impossible with flour.
149 Q. What are lentils?
A. Small, round, flat beans, convex on both sides, about one-fifth inch in diameter. They grow two in a pod and are eaten when fully ripe. Used largely by the foreign-born population in soups and stews.
150 Q. What is the difference between the Michigan and the California navy beans?
A. There are two sizes of California navy beans, "small" and "large." In size the Michigan bean is between these two. The Michigan beans cook more quickly than the California beans, and for this reason the two should never be mixed together; the Michigan beans would be cooked when the California beans would be only partly cooked.
151 Q. What kind of bean is the Pinto bean?
A. The Pinto bean is of about the size of the navy bean, being rather flat in shape and freely speckled with brown. Its food value and flavor are in every way equal to those of the standard navy bean. It takes its name from the calico spotted pinto pony of the West. The Pinto bean cooks more easily than the navy bean, and is more tender.
152 Q. What kind of bean is the Kintoki bean?
A. A large red bean, grown in China and Japan. Used extensively in making chili con came.
153 Q. What are French Green Lima beans, Great Northern beans, Cranberry beans?
A. The accompanying illustration shows the sizes and shapes of these three varieties of beans. The French Green Lima beans, generally known as Flageolets, are picked before they are mature and are of light green color. The Great Northern beans are white in color, while the Cranberry beans are speckled with brown like the pinto beans.
154 Q. How do the "Pink," "Red," "Brown," and "Red Kidney" beans differ?
A. See accompanying illustration for differences in sizes and shapes. The color of the "Pink" beans is brownish pink; that of the "Red" beans is maroon; that of the "Brown" beans is light brown, while the color of the "Red Kidney" beans is reddish brown.