( Originally Published 1926 )
30 Q. How many grades of canned fruits are there?
A. There are three grades generally used by canners for table fruit: Fancy, Choice, and Standard. There are also two lower grades, variously designated by such terms as "Sub-standard," "Natural," "Water," or "Pie" grade. The lower grades usually consist of undersized or irregular fruit, or fruit which is either too ripe or not ripe enough for table fruit, but is nevertheless sound and wholesome. A heavier syrup is used on the higher grades, while the lower grades are put up in lighter syrup or in water, as is the case with the "Water" or "Pie" grades.
31 Q. What principles govern the grading of fruit by the canners?
A. The grading of peaches illustrates very well the principle governing the grading of the large fruits. In the Fancy grade, perfect stock in the best state of ripeness is used and is handled with particular care. The fruit must be large enough to take not more than 12 pieces (halves) to fill a No. 2 1/2 can; a 55-degree syrup is added. For Choice grade, the fruit must be nearly perfect, but need not be so large, the limit being 15 halves per can; a 40-degree syrup is used. The limit for Standard grade is 21 halves of good but less uniform fruit, and the strength of the syrup is 25 degrees. The "Sub-standard" grade calls for sound fruit of fairly uniform size and ripeness, without any definite size limit, packed in 10-degree syrup. The "Pie" grade simply requires sound, wholesome fruit packed in water in large cans, chiefly for making pies and other food products.
The smaller fruits are usually graded only for quality, which is based largely on uniformity of color, size, flavor, and freedom from dam-aged fruit.
32 Q. What is meant by "55-degree" syrup, "40-degree" syrup, etc?
A. The figures indicate the percentage of sugar used in preparing the syrup. Thus, "55-degree" syrup is prepared by dissolving 55 pounds of sugar in 45 pounds of water.
33 Q. In syrups of what degrees are the various fruits put up under each of the three grades—Fancy, Choice, and Standard?
A. The following table gives syrups commonly used by most canners :
Fancy Choice Standard
Note. The syrups used in canning Plums and Red Raspberries vary in different parts of the country.
34 Q. What are the several sizes of cans in which fruits are canned?
A. Canned fruits are commonly packed in five sizes of cans, the commercial designation and average net contents of which are:
Designation of can Average net contents
No. 1 12 oz.
35 Q. What are the various fruit items that are put up in cans?
A. Apple Butter
36 Q. What is the difference between the "Yellow Free" and the "Yellow Cling" canned peaches?
A. The name "free" is derived from the fact that the pit of this variety is free of the flesh of the fruit and is easily removed, whereas with the "cling" peach the pit must be removed by cutting. The Yellow Cling peach is a much more popular seller on account of its exception-ally fine appearance and color. A fully ripened Yellow Free peach, when canned, does not pre-sent such an attractive appearance as the cling, as its very nature gives it a somewhat ragged appearance. Many people, however, prefer it to the cling on account of its different flavor, peculiar to itself. Practically all of the dried peaches on the market are of the Yellow Free variety, but a large percentage of the crop also goes into cans.
37 Q. What kind of peach is the White Cling peach?
A. The flesh of the fresh White Cling peach is creamy white, with a faint blush of red. It is a very tender peach, quite juicy, and luscious in flavor. As in the case of the Yellow Cling, the pit of the White Cling is removed by cutting. (Both the White Cling and Yellow Cling peaches are also sliced.)
38 Q. What is meant by "Melba" peaches?
A. Extraordinary large halves of Yellow Cling peaches are packed and sold as "Melba Halves" and are particularly desirable for fancy desserts.
39 Q. What is considered a "properly filled" can of halved peaches?
A. According to the Bureau of Chemistry, U. S. Department of Agriculture, properly filled cans of halved peaches should yield, at least, the following drained weights:
No. 2 can 13 1/2 oz.
40 Q. Is the pineapple that grows on the Hawaiian Islands different from the pineapples that grow elsewhere?
A. The pineapple growing on the Hawaiian Islands is known as the Smooth Cayenne pine-apple. It grows on a large plant, the leaves of which are smooth, except the tip ends. The fruit is very large and, when ripe, is of a deep yellow color. The pineapples growing in other places have the stiff, saw-edged leaves; the fruit is smaller and does not have the rich color of the Hawaiian pineapple.
41 Q. Is the Hawaiian pineapple canned in this country or on the islands?
A. All of the canned Hawaiian pineapple is canned on the islands. This is done in order to preserve intact the flavor of the fully ripened pineapple. If the pineapples were to be brought over and canned in this country, they would have to be picked before they were fully ripened in order not to be injured in the handling and shipping.
42 Q. How many slices of Hawaiian pineapple are there in each of the several sizes of cans in which it is put up?
A. The No. 1 flat can contains 4 slices; the No. 1 tall, 8 or 9 slices; the No. 2 squat, 6 slices; the No. 2 tall, 8 or 10 slices ; the No. 2˝, 8 slices. The number of slices in a No. 10 can vary with the size of slices used. A No. 10 can contains from 28 to 30 slices of the size packed in No. 2 1/2 cans; 38 to 40 slices of the size packed in No. 2 tall cans (8 slices to a can) ; and 50 to 52 slices of the size packed in No. 1 tall cans or of the size packed in No. 2 tall cans (10 slices to a can).
43 Q. Why is the pineapple so called?
A. Because the shape of the fruit and its external appearance resemble the cone of the pine tree.
44 Q. Are all the canned pears of the Bartlett variety?
A. No. Pears of the Kieffer variety are also extensively canned. As a rule, unless the label states that the pears are Bartlett pears, they are of the Kieffer variety.
45 Q. Why do some canned pears have a pinkish color?
A. This is caused by excess of heat at the time of canning. It is very difficult to can pears without discoloring them. The pinkish color, however, does not in any way impair the flavor of the pear.
46 Q. Which of the canned cherries are considered to be the best?
A. The Royal Anne cherries. (The Royal Anne cherry is a white cherry with a red cheek. The red part turns brown when the cherry is cooked.)
47 Q. What is considered a "properly filled" can of unpitted cherries?
A. According to the Bureau of Chemistry, U. S. Department of Agriculture, properly filled cans of unpitted cherries should yield, at least, the following drained weights, these weights being determined in each instance by draining for two minutes on a 1/8-inch mesh screen :
No. 1 can 10.5 oz. of cherries
The variance in the net weight of cherries put up in No. 2, No. 2 1/2. and No. 10 cans is due to the difference in the richness of the syrups used.
48 Q. What kind of plum is the green gage plum, and why is it so called?
A. The green gage plum belongs to the yellow variety of plums. When ripe, its color is light green or yellow-green. It is a small plum with a tart flavor. It was named after a man by the name of Gage who introduced it into England from France, where it was originally grown.
49 Q. What kind of prunes are the canned prunes labeled "Fresh Prunes"?
24 Canned Fruits
A. The same kind of prunes that are used for drying, picked when fully ripe and canned immediately. The fresh prunes usually canned are of the Oregon, or Italian, variety. They are put up in heavy syrup as they are quite tart.
50 Q. What kind of berry is the loganberry?
A. This is an oblong-shaped berry of a dull red color. It resembles the blackberry in shape
and the red raspberry in color and somewhat in flavor, but is more tart. When fully ripe, the loganberry is from one and a half to two inches long. It is sold both canned and dried.
51 Q. What are the various fruits that are used in packing "Fruits for Salads"?
A. The fruits commonly used are: Peaches, pears, pineapples, apricots, and cherries. The red cherries found in canned fruits for salads are prepared from white cherries and are artificially colored and flavored.
52 Q. Is the canned grapefruit put up with sugar or without sugar?
A. It is put up both with and without sugar.
When put up without sugar, it is labeled "Unsweetened."
53 Q. How many grades of canned rhubarb are there and how do they differ?
A. There are three grades: Fancy, packed in 70-degree syrup; Choice, packed in 60-degree syrup; and Standard, packed in water without any sugar. The quality of the rhubarb itself in all three grades is practically the same. (While rhubarb is a vegetable, it is canned in syrup as fruits are and is used on the table as a fruit, and because of that fact it is commonly listed under Canned Fruits.)
54 Q. What are the various fruit items that are put up in No. 10 cams (so-called gallon cans) in addition to the usual smaller sized cans?
A. Apples Peach Butter