( Originally Published 1926 )
267 Q. What kind of flour is Graham flour and why is it so called?
A. Graham flour is coarse all-wheat flour. The term "Graham" originated some years ago with Dr. Sylvester Graham, a practicing physician, who prescribed bread made from coarsely ground wheat, from which no part of the grain had been removed as an aid in relieving constipation. As the public became familiar with the product, it came to be known as "Graham Flour."
268 Q. What is the difference between" Graham" and "Entire Wheat" flour?
A. The only difference between the two is that the entire wheat flour is milled slightly finer than the Graham flour. Entire wheat flour, therefore, makes bread with a finer crumb, but its beneficial effects are practically the same as those of Graham flour.
269 Q. How many grades of rye flour are there?
A. Three grades : White, Medium, and Dark. The pure white, or patent rye, is a very white product, being practically as white in color as wheat flour. It is intended for use in rye products where a white color is desirable, but it does not have as strong a rye flavor as the darker grades. The Medium Rye is the most popular of the three grades. It is darker in color because it contains a larger percentage of the rye grain and this also accounts for its pronounced rye flavor. The Dark Rye flour is used principally by bakers who wish to produce a very dark rye bread. Its lower price also makes it more attractive to the baker.
270 Q. What is meant by "Bohemian Rye" flour?
A. While rye contains some gluten, it is not sufficient to give very satisfactory results if used alone. It is, therefore, customary to blend with it a certain proportion of wheat flour in order to give it rising power. Such blends are known as Bohemian Rye flours.
271 Q. What is "Rye Meal"?
A. Rye Meal, also known as Rye Graham and as Pumpernickel, is simply what the name "Rye Graham" implies, being the whole rye grain ground somewhat coarsely, with nothing added and nothing removed. It is used in making pumpernickel and also a kind of hard tack which is very popular with Scandinavian people.
272 Q. What is the difference between cornmeal and corn flour?
A. Cornmeal is the coarsely ground grain of the corn, either white or yellow, while corn flour is finely ground and sifted white cornmeal.
273 Q. From what is Gluten flour made, and for what is it used?
A. Gluten flour is made from wheat flour from which a large part of the starch has been removed. It is used for making bread for diabetic people and others who must abstain from starchy foods.
274 Q. What is ground gluten?
A. Ground gluten is made from wheat flour by the almost complete removal of starch.
275 Q. What is meant by "patent" flour?
A. Flour made from wheat, from which the germ oil has been removed.
276 Q. What is meant by "strength" in flour?
A. The power of absorption. A "strong" flour absorbs more water than a "weak" one, and makes more loaves to the barrel.