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( Originally Published 1926 )

190 Q. How is common table salt obtained?

A. The common table salt is obtained from de-posits of rock salt found beneath the surface of the earth. This salt is brought up to the surface either by mining or by forcing water through pipes down to where the deposits are, dissolving the salt, then pumping up and evaporating the brine. The water method is the one commonly used.

191 Q. How does the free-running salt differ from the ordinary table salt?

A. The free-running salt contains a very small amount (usually 1%) of carbonate of magnesia, which is added to the salt to keep it from caking.

192 Q. What is meant by "Rock" salt?

A. "Rock" salt is salt mined from salt de-posits in the earth.

193 Q. What is meant by "40-grain" vinegar, "45-grain" vinegar, etc.?

A. To say that a vinegar is "40-grain" is the same as saying that it is 4 per cent acetic acid strength. Similarly, "45-grain" would mean 4˝ per cent and "50-grain" would mean 5 per cent. The use of the terms "40-grain," "45-grain," etc., comes about because these figures represent the amounts of alkali required to neutralize the acetic acid of the vinegar. A 40-grain vinegar requires just 40 grains of alkali to entirely neutralize the acid.

194 Q. How strong must a vinegar be that is to be used for pickling purposes?

A. Vinegar for pickling purposes must be at least 45 grains strong.

195 Q. From what is the White Distilled Vinegar made?

A. From diluted distilled alcohol.

196 Q. From what is malt vinegar made, and for what is it used?

A. Malt vinegar is usually made by fermenting barley malt, .and sometimes by fermenting the malt of other cereals. It is generally used for pickling purposes.

197 Q. Can vinegar that is made from apple peel-

ings and cores be labeled "cider" vinegar?

A. No. According to a ruling by the Bureau of Chemistry, U. S. Department of Agriculture, the term "cider vinegar" should be applied only to the product made from fermented apple juice and it is not permissible to use this name for the product made from chops, dried skins and cores by the process of soaking and subsequent fermentation.

198 Q. What is meant by "sugar" vinegar and by "glucose" vinegar?

A. Sugar vinegar is produced from solutions of sugar, syrup, molasses, or refiners' syrup, while glucose vinegar is produced from solutions of starch sugar, or glucose.

199 Q. What kind of vinegar is the one known as Tarragon vinegar?

A. This is vinegar that has been flavored with tarragon, an evergreen aromatic herb.

200 Q. What is Mayonnaise?

A. Mayonnaise is salad dressing prepared from the whites of eggs, olive oil, vinegar, and spices. Some manufacturers use cottonseed oil in place of olive oil. The Bureau of Chemistry, U. S. Department of Agriculture, has ruled that salad dressing, if made with oil, must be labeled to indicate the kind of oil used, unless that oil is olive oil. It has also ruled that the word "Mayonnaise" cannot appear anywhere on the package unless eggs are used.

201 Q. What is "French" salad dressing?

A. This is an olive oil dressing, usually consisting of four measures of olive oil mixed with one measure of vinegar, seasoned with salt and pepper, and sometimes other spices. A little onion juice is also added by some manufacturers.

202 Q. Is the quality of a salad dressing affected when the salad dressing "separates" in the bottle?

A. No. The quality is not affected in any way; a little shaking of the bottle is all that is necessary.

203 Q. What kind of sauce is Worcestershire sauce?

A. This is a very pungent, dark-colored sauce. While various manufacturers use different formulas in preparing it, the following are the most important ingredients of high-grade Worcestershire sauces : Soy, vinegar, tamarind pulp, onion juice, lime juice, garlic, chili peppers, and various spices. (Soy is a brown sauce, prepared from soy beans and roasted wheat, while the tamarind pulp, which contains several acids and salts, is obtained from the fruit of a tropical tree.)

204 Q. What is meant by "prepared" mustard?

A. Prepared mustard, also known as German mustard, French mustard, and Mustard Paste, is a paste composed of a mixture of ground mustard or mustard flour, with salt, vinegar, and with or without spices or other condiments which do not simulate the color of yellow ground mustard. If a coloring is added, such as turmeric, it must be so stated on the label.

205 Q. How is tomato catsup made?

A. After the tomatoes have been inspected for ripeness and soundness, they are put into the "scalder," where they are thoroughly washed by being run through a steady stream of hot water. They are then crushed, and the seeds and skins removed by forcing the pulp and juice through a fine sieve. Spices, sugar, and vinegar are added, and the pulp boiled down to the desired consistency.

206 Q. How is walnut catsup made?

A. The walnut catsup is made from green walnuts, picked when still tender enough to be easily pierced by a pin.

207 Q. What are truffles?

A. The truffle is a species of fungi, growing under the ground. It varies in size from that of a plum to that of a medium sized potato, and has neither roots nor stalk, or any other parts. The outside is black and warty, while the inside is dark brown and is pervaded by a network of threads. The truffle is found almost entirely in France. As there is no growth above the ground, trained hogs and dogs are used in locating the truffle beds. The truffle has an aromatic flavor and a piquant taste, and is used for seasoning and garnishing. The largest and blackest truffles are the best and, of course, command the highest prices. The truffles usually come put up in small sized cans and jars.

208 Q. What is tabasco sauce?

A. This is a very hot red-colored sauce, made from ripe tabasco peppers and vinegar. It is usually sold in small, squirt-top bottles, and is used in flavoring meat sauces, salads, soups, oysters, and other dishes.

209 Q. What are capers, and for what are they used?

A. Capers are the pickled flower buds of the caper shrub, which is cultivated as a garden plant in the countries of Southern Europe. The buds, which are of the size of small peas, are first dried, then put up in strong vinegar. They are usually sold in green bottles, and are used in fine cooking for making sauce for meats.

210 Q. What kind of spice is allspice?

A. Allspice is the dried, nearly ripe, fruit of a small tree, called the pimento, growing in the West Indies. It is of the size of a small pea, and is similar in appearance to whole black pepper. It is called allspice because it resembles in flavor somewhat a mixture of cloves, cinnamon, and nutmeg.

211 Q. How do nutmegs grow?

A. Nutmeg is the dried, wrinkled kernel of the seed of an evergreen tropical tree, similar

Nutmeg and Mace — the Way They Grow

The Ripe Fruit Sectional View Mace Nutmeg in appearance to the pear tree and growing to a height of about 50 feet. The fruit is of about the size of a large peach, which, when ripe, splits open and exposes the red blood covering (the spice "mace") over the shell of the seed. The nutmeg is the kernel inside of the shell.

212 Q. How does mace grow?

A. As explained in the preceding answer, mace is the red blood covering the shell of the seed, within which shell is found the nutmeg. When fresh, the mace is blood red and rather fleshy, but turns yellow when dried out. Mace has much the flavor of the nutmeg, but has a peculiarity which some people prefer.

213 Q. How does cinnamon grow?

A. Cinnamon is the inner bark of a small evergreen tree, growing in Ceylon, Java, the West Indies, Egypt, and Brazil. The bark is very thin and smooth, and has a light brown color. The taste is sweet and pleasing, and the flavor mild and fragrant.

214 Q. What is cassia?

A. Cassia is a spice so identical to cinnamon that even experts cannot tell the difference between the two when in the ground form. The bark of the cassia is much thicker than that of the cinnamon. The cassia has a decidedly pun-gent taste and a much stronger flavor than the cinnamon. The terms Cassia and Cinnamon, although representing two separate species, are interchangeable in. commerce.

215 Q. How does ginger grow?

A. Ginger is the underground stem or rhisome of the ginger plant, which grows in China, Jamaica, the West Indies, Africa, Japan, and tropical America. It is the only spice obtained from the roots of a plant.

216 Q. What is the white coating that is found on some whole ginger?

A. Whole ginger is sometimes coated with lime or with whiting to improve its appearance.

217 Q. How do cloves grow?

A. Cloves are the dried flower buds of the clove tree, which grows on the islands of the tropics. It is a bushy tree with a cone-shaped appearance, and averages from twelve to twenty feet in height. The buds are picked by hand, then spread out on mats to dry, or else dried over a slow fire.

218 Q. How is black pepper obtained?

A. Black pepper is the dried, immature berry of a climbing shrub growing in the tropics. The ground black pepper is obtained by grinding the entire berry—black coating and all.

219 Q. How is white pepper obtained?

A. White pepper is obtained by grinding the mature black pepper berries, after the outer black coating of the berries has been removed.

220 Q. From what is the common red pepper made?

A. From Japanese or Bombassa chili peppers, which are small and very hot.

221 Q. How is paprika obtained?

A. Paprika is obtained by grinding dried, ripe, red, sweet peppers of a mildly pungent flavor. ("Paprika" is the Hungarian word for pepper.)

222 Q. What is meant by "Hungarian" paprika and by "Spanish" paprika?

A. "Hungarian" paprika is paprika having the pungency and flavor characteristic of that grown in Hungary, while "Spanish" paprika is paprika having the characteristics of the milder paprika grown in Spain.

223 Q. What is meant by "Rosen" paprika?

A. "Rosen" paprika is high-grade Hungarian paprika prepared by grinding specially selected pods of paprika from which the placentae, stalks, and stems have been removed.

224 Q. What is curry powder?

A. 'A seasoning originally used in India. It consists of turmeric, black pepper, cayenne pep-per, corriander seed, ginger, and a number of other ingredients. Its composition varies with different manufacturers; spices are added or omitted, according to the locality. ("Curry" is the Hindu word for stew.)

225 Q. What is the difference between "ground mustard" and "mustard flour"?

A. Ground mustard is the powder made from mustard seed, with nothing taken away, while mustard flour is the powder made from mustard seed with the hulls largely removed by sifting and usually with the removal of about 15 per cent or 25 per cent of the fatty oil of the seed.

226 Q. For what are bay leaves used?

A. For flavoring of soups, stews, etc., and in spicing pickles and fish.

227 Q. How does sage grow?

A. This is a shrub about two feet high, be-longing to the mint family. It grows wild in many parts of southern Europe and in some parts of the United States, but it is also cultivated as a garden plant.

228 Q. What is marjoram?

A. An aromatic herb, the dried leaves and flowering tops of which are used for spicing soups, dressings, etc.

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