Cocoa And Chocolate
( Originally Published 1926 )
173 Q. How is chocolate obtained,
A. By grinding the roasted cocoa beans to a pasty mass and mould ing this into tablets. The cocoa beans are the seeds of the pod-like fruit of the cacao tree, which grows in the tropics. The pods, which are found largely on the trunk of the tree, have a hard, thick shell, and are from 6 to 12 inches long and from 3 to 4½ inches in diameter. There are from 20 to 50 beans in each pod. After .the hard shells of the pods have been broken, the seeds are cleaned, dried, cured, roasted, crushed, and ground. It is the roasting that develops the familiar chocolate flavor.
174 Q. How is cocoa obtained,
A. Cocoa is made from chocolate after about one-half of its butter has been extracted; the residue is finely pulverized. Cocoa is thus considerably less rich in fat than chocolate.
175 Q. What is the difference' between "Bitter" chocolate, "Sweet" chocolate, "Milk" chocolate, and "Premium" chocolate?
A. Bitter chocolate is produced by grinding the roasted cocoa beans, without the removal of any of the fat or anything else, except the germ. Sweet chocolate is made from bitter chocolate to which sugar has been added. Some-times spices and other flavoring materials are also added. Milk chocolate contains not less than 12 per cent of whole milk solids. It is usually made from sweet chocolate, although it need not necessarily contain sugar. Premium chocolate is the trade name for bitter chocolate put up in small cakes, the usual sizes being 1/5-lb.,1%lb., and 1/2-lb. cakes.
176 Q. What is Dutch cocoa or Dutch-process cocoa?
A. Dutch cocoa or Dutch-process cocoa is cocoa in the manufacture of which an alkali carbonate, or other alkaline substance, has been employed. The alkaline treatment gives the cocoa a darker color, making it resemble chocolate, and is supposed to make it more soluble than ordinary cocoa.
177 Q. Why do some cocoas cost more than others?
A. There are different grades of cocoa, some costing more than others to produce. The different grades are determined by the quality of the beans used (there are many grades of cocoa beans on the market), and by the methods of blending and roasting used to produce smoothness, uniformity, and richness.
178 Q. What percentage of fat (cocoa butter) does chocolate contain?
A. The Government ruling is that no chocolate may be so labeled unless it contains not less than 45 per cent of cocoa fat, the fat the beans naturally contain. Most brands of chocolate on the market contain the minimum fat required 45 per cent.