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Collecting Old Continental Pottery
Henri Deux Ware, Etc.
Paris And Its Environs
Glazed Pottery Of France
Stoneware Of Germany
German And Other Guilds
SWEDEN, DENMARK, SWITZERLAND:
Stockholm, Rorstrand, and Marieberg
Delft: The Old Signs Of The Potters
Majolica And Luca Della Robia
Naples, Rimini, Monte Feltro, And Forli
Siena, Monte Lupo, And Pisa
Fabriano, Viterbo, Rome
Venice, Treviso, Bassano, Milan, Etc.
PERSIA AND DAMASCUS:
Persia And Damascus
Persian And Other Tiles
Rhodes, Asiatic Turkey, Etc.
( Originally Published Early 1900's )
Nuremberg, Bayreuth and other Potteries
Creussen, whose stoneware has been shortly considered, stands at one corner of a triangle whose short side reaches to Bayreuth, from which the longest side stretches to Nuremberg, and from thence the third side passes back to Creussen. Nuremberg and Bayreuth made faience. We mentioned the green enamel on the stoneware of Nuremberg, and that enamel gives a distinction to its pottery which was largely employed in the making of the stoves for which it was noted. The green enamel was applied in a glaze, the base of which was lead and other colours; yellow and violet were also employed, whilst the outlines were drawn in brown. Groups and figures, plaques, and tiles were amongst the pro ductions which deserve attention. " St. George slaying the dragon," a group in the late fifteenth-century style, and a " Virgin and Child," another group, both enamelled in green, are amongst the subjects which have appealed to many ages. The plaques contain many bas relief portraits of German princes, whilst the tiles were often finely decorated. The illustration showing a " Virgin and Child " upon a tile is characteristic of the fine work of the old potter of the city upon the Peignitz, in the sixteenth century. There and then he had many work-fellows, judging from the number of stoves which survive and the names which are inscribed upon the pieces.
Jacquemart speaks of a plaque in faience which bore in German this inscription : " Mons, Christophe Mars, founder of the fabrique of porcelain of this place, born in 166o the 25th December, died in the year 1751, the 18th March"; and he discusses whether Mars really made porcelain. We need not follow him in his remarks about that; rather will we consider a faience clock which he describes as bearing the arms of Nuremberg and the names, " Christoph Mars, Johann Jacob Nfayer, des Reichstadt, Niirnberg. 1724. Straebel." The last named is that of a painter upon faience, whose name appears upon a dish in the Sevres Museum with the date December 12, 1730. Another name appears upon a service painted in the same style, of which one piece bears a signature G. Kozdenbusch, whilst the other pieces have the initials G.K. only, which are frequently found upon fine specimens of Nuremberg faience. Probably, too, the K under the monogram NB, for Nuremberg, indicates the same artist. The NB monogram has other initials and numbers below it.
Other Nuremberg marks are given by the same author, who also states that about 1720 Mars endeavoured to revive the rich decoration of the majolica of Faenza, but that the results obtained were poor. He cites the name Stebner and the date 1771 as occurring upon a covered flagon or cruche ornamented with foliage and large flowers outlined in black. A specimen of Hanau faience, a beer-jug, shown as an illustration on page 114 is a type of much of the ware produced throughout Germany. Recently the pottery of Frankfurt and Hanau have been investigated, and many of the examples discovered resemble debased delft of the early period of that manufacture. It seems that about 1661 Daniel Behagel and other Dutchmen settled at Hanau. Probably, by the time that a second edition of this volume is demanded, full particulars of these researches will be forthcoming. A page of new marks from the Hanau district shows that modern Germany is finding out things as France has done.
The faience of Bayreuth was a fine clay body, covered with a bluish-tinted white enamel, upon which delicate designs were painted in a blue which was rather dull. Amongst the best pieces are found the comfit-dishes or Plats-dyageoiys made up of compartments heart-shaped and disposed around the central piece in the form of a star. These are attributed to that G. Kozdenbusch above mentioned, originally a potter of Nuremberg, though they are only marked with a K, not with his name in full. The more important specimens of Bayreuth ware were signed Bayreuth. K. Hu, or with initials BK, BCK, and more frequently BP, which appears upon examples decorated with bouquets painted in polychrome. Certain flowers are remarkable for their vivid red colour, but, generally, the endeavour seems to have been to imitate the Saxon or Dresden style.
Now a slight sketch of the other factories for making faience in Germany will bring this subject to its close. Anspach, in Bavaria, had a pottery: Matthias Rosa im Anspach appears upon a fine centre-piece, mentioned by Jacquemart as being decorated in blue, with borders and lambrequins in the style of Rouen, which reintroduces the question as to the confusion of other wares with the ware which they imitated. Without any mark who can be certain ?
Frankenthal became the scene of the labours of Paul Antoine Hannong when he was exiled from Strasburg for making porcelain in 1754, and we should expect that the wares he made in his new home would be like those which he had produced at Strasburg at first, under the direction of his father. So they were, but the body was less refined, the enamel less white, and the flowers, rather coarsely outlined in black, were less clear in colour, being dirty-looking and purplish. When Joseph A. succeeded his father he showed no progress in these matters. So that, although we may see the familiar P.H. in a monogram, or the J.H. surmounted by a star, the marks of father and son, there will be but slight danger in attributing to Strasburg the inferior work of Frankenthal in faience. The story of its porcelain does not enter here.
Neither does the story of Hochst porcelain, which, like the faience, was marked with the wheel having six spokes, or you may call it a star surrounded by a circle. In connection with Hochst, we find that a Frankfort potter founded the works in the early part of the eighteenth century. This was Gelz, whose initial G over the wheel is found upon some of the best articles, best in paste and in decoration. Landscapes, figure-subjects, and flowers were painted with a care and an art which may find its highest expression upon the porcelain, but is scarcely less admirable upon the enamelled faience which was made concurrently. Hochst figures by Melchior in porcelain are valued for their excellence, and some graceful specimens in faience are ascribed to the same celebrated artist. The productions of the Hannongs at Frankenthal were inferior to the Hochst faience of Gelz and of Zeschinger, whose name or initials are amongst those associated with the wheel.
About 1794, after the destruction of the factory by General Custine, the moulds, etc., were sold, and Dahl, whose D over the wheel marks his work, bought many of them. His figurines in faience, and faience fine like white English earthenware, are not uncommon, though they lack the qualities which the older ware displays. Hochst faience is not unworthy of a place by the side of its admirable porcelain: both have acquired a just reputation for perfection in ceramic art.
Goggingen, near Augsburg in Bavaria, made ware which was usually painted in a pale blue resembling the genre of Saxony, but exceptions with a fine blue have been found. All of the productions that are assigned to this factory have the name in full upon them, Goggingen ; some artists' initials are occasionally seen. Gennep, in Luxemburg, appears on pieces made there-large dishes with slip and scratched decoration, upon which the inscription explains the subject delineated, as, St. Joseph and Mary with their dear little Jesus under an apple-tree. Then follows the artist's name and the dateAntoine Bernard de Vehlen. 1770 24 aout. Gennep.
5t. Georges, also in Bavaria, made fine faience, the discovery of which was due to M. Paul Gasnault, who found a piece decorated in polychrome with fruits and flowers, which has the following long inscription: Pinxit F : G : Fliegel. St. Georgen amsee, R ; 3 Noyember 1764.
At Harburg in Hanover, about the middle of the seventeenth century, J. Schapper produced some wonderful faience decorated with designs in black enamel with the high-lights removed by the point, and with touches of gold. Specimens of this exceedingly fine ware, signed with the monogram LS., are excessively rare, though Jacquemart mentions J.S. as a mark on a plate with blue decoration of no special merit.
There are many initials and monograms which have not yet been traced to any German factory, though they bear evidence of German origin. When a place-name such as Proskaati in Prussia is written, we know it relates to the brown faience made there, and when an artist's name accompanies it, as G. Ma-rayack fecit, we have what we want, but when an initial such as S is given alone we are left in doubt between Rouen ware marked with that letter and, say, Schreitzheim ware, which is distinguished by similar bouquets painted in polychrome and marked with S. The Strasburg faience, even with the S mark, stands in a separate class, different altogether from that of Rouen. In due course our knowledge of the pottery of Germany will be extended. The researches at Frankfort and Hanau are hopeful signs, precursory of further discoveries in which the full history of Nuremberg and Siegburg, Raeren, Frechen, Westerwald, and Creussen, the stoneware centres, will be revealed, side by side with the full story of German faience.