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Collecting Old Continental Pottery
Henri Deux Ware, Etc.
Paris And Its Environs
Glazed Pottery Of France
Stoneware Of Germany
German And Other Guilds
SWEDEN, DENMARK, SWITZERLAND:
Stockholm, Rorstrand, and Marieberg
Delft: The Old Signs Of The Potters
Majolica And Luca Della Robia
Naples, Rimini, Monte Feltro, And Forli
Siena, Monte Lupo, And Pisa
Fabriano, Viterbo, Rome
Venice, Treviso, Bassano, Milan, Etc.
PERSIA AND DAMASCUS:
Persia And Damascus
Persian And Other Tiles
Rhodes, Asiatic Turkey, Etc.
( Originally Published Early 1900's )
The fabrique at Rennes appears to have existed from the second half of the seventeenth century, but the first document relating to it is not dated earlier than 1748, when Jean Forassi, nicknamed Barbarino, a Florentine, founded a manufactory of enamelled pottery; then he built another in the rue Hue, where the best of his work was done in the style of Marseilles, distinguished by a special colouring in which the violet of manganese was predominant. A fountain of great elegance of form, with skilful decoration of arabesques and flowers, which was exhibited at Paris in 1867, bore the inscription: Fait d Rennes, rue Hue 1769. A large dish with blue flowers painted on a white ground also is known to have a similar mark, and, so far, these two pieces appear to be the only guides to the Rennes ware, for though the name Bourgouin is said to figure on several specimens, the name Baron on others, in 1775, and Choisi on a tureen, the evidence connecting them with the Rennes factories is not conclusive. We are told that all table and household requisites were manufactured; that upon a milky white ground a subdued decoration in polychrome was applied; and that the blue and the yellow were the only two colours which maintained t h e i r freshness amidst much that was dull. Perhaps the Rennes figures and groups of saints which were sold in the streets at the time of pilgrimages and fetes will receive more attention from some local historian. It appears that an inscription, N::D:: De Guelin, is found on some of these. In 1791 one active factory alone existed.
A plate marked with a letter R, in common faience, painted with bouquets, has been attributed to Renac, which iS in the same department (Ille-et-Vilaine) as Rennes. We give it for what it is worth, on the strength of the list of Glot, in which Renac is given as a town in which faience was made.
The middle of the eighteenth century abounded with potters working at Nantes : Colin, Montillier, Belabre, Arnauld, Cacault, Lhote, and Castelnau-the widow Martin and others, including Perret and Fourmy, who in 1771 re ceived the title of manufacture royale. It is stated that this factory used the fleur de lis as a mark, but Marseilles is credited with that mark, which Savy adopted after the visit of the Comte of Provence to his f abrique in 1777. And the " General Almanac of Commerce " does not mention Perret and Fourmy in 1788. Instead, it gives the name of Derivas fils, " whose faience was able to compare with those of Nevers and of Rouen."
The early accounts of the ceramic industry at Le Croisic trace its advent to a Flemish potter, Demigennes, in the sixteenth century. He was succeeded by an Italian, Borniola, in 1627, who left the fabrique to Jean and Beatrice Borniola. The latter married one Davys. The faience produced here resembled the older productions of Antwerp and of Flanders, being white, godrooned, and painted in blue and pale yellow, with foliage and flowers. In their turn they served as a pattern for the old Rennes wares.
The fabrique at Quimper was founded late in the seventeenth century. According to a document preserved at Sevres, " there was at Quimper a manufactory of enamelled faience in imitation of Rouen, established in the year 1690. It supplied a part of Brittany." The wares resembled those of Rennes, being of a more greyish tint, but otherwise having similar decoration of foliage and flowers, although in the Cluny Museum there is a plate, with a Chinese design of a bird on a branch, in colours, on a white ground, which is marked on the reverse with a T. This is assigned to Quimper. Similar coloured faience was produced at Quimperle. Jacquemart remarks upon a charming suspension or hanging bracket, with decoration in relief heightened with colours which closely resembled the ware of Rennes. Of Malicorne, Ligron, Pont-Vallain, and St. Longes in the Sarthe Department, little is known; nevertheless Saint-Longe, impressed in the paste, has been found upon choice specimens, resembling those of Lorraine, ornamented with reliefs and with enamel colours and rouge d'or, the red from gold.
At several of the towns marked on the map, faience formed one of the local products at some period in the eighteenth century, but history gives little beside the fact. Reference can be made for their position to the map. With a few exceptions no marks were used, so that it would be useless repetition to give names and dates, or even the styles as set out in the documents. On the other hand, some fabriques, re-established in modern days, imitate the old ware and apply the name of the town as a mark-" Gien " and " Sarreguemines," for example. Again, the recent discovery of old pieces marked with a rare but genuine name, and perhaps a date, has led to a fresh classification. We shall understand this easily if we consider one case.
The productions of the fabrique of Clermont were imitations of Moustiers blue-and-white ware, for which they are mistaken. The subjects of Berain were reproduced with great fidelity, so that the confusion was excusable until some specimens came to light which settled the matter. These bore on the reverse the words Clermont-Feryand d'Auveygne, and the dates 1734, 1736, and 1738. The next step will be to search into the archives of the town in Puy-de-Dome and find out who the potters were that lived there then. Who used the letters DMCEN as a, mark in blue, and who the oblique cross ? Or again, who decorated this cylindrical flower-stand with a blue lace-pattern copied from Moustiers, with alternate designs forming lambrequins, having a border of flower ornament round the base, and used the blue mark P over a dot ?
Such marks have been found upon fine pieces of faience, which have been classified as productions of Clermont-Ferrand, where coarse wares were also made. To this class belong certain plates and pieces bearing the name of the person for whom each was made. Jacquemart describes one-a salad bowl decorated in the interior with a picture of the atelier of a turner and the name Perrier Lauche; on the outside the vine with its grapes extend all round. The body of this piece was compact and dense, red in colour, and covered with dull enamels. Neither this nor the imitations of Moustiers belong to the earliest faience, which was painted in blue on a white ground, in simple designs, or glazed only with a mottled brown lead glaze, the last being a ware which was made in nearly every fabrique.
J. E. Dessaux de Romilly received in 1753 a decree giving him a monopoly for the making of faience of white earth, purified, during a period of twenty years. Yet only two years later Leroy was the director of the works. In 1757 C. C. Gerault Daraubert succeeded him, and transformed them into porcelain works. Jacquemart mentions a rare piece, marked with an O surmounted by a crown, in blue. This was a figure of a Chinese holding with his two hands the diverging branches of a tree. Another figure, with a similar mark, representing a child leaning back against the trunk of a tree, holding a basket in front, was in the Gasnault collection. A third piece, a large decorated two-branched candlestick or flambeau in the Cotteau collection, had likewise the crowned O mark, whilst ORLEANS is sometimes found as an impressed mark. The small figures decorated with blue enamel were modelled by Jean Louis, who worked at Strasburg and Sceaux before coming to Orleans. Then there were large figures made about 1767 by Bernard Huet, which ranged from four to eight feet in height. Probably to the same modeller should be assigned the figures and groups enamelled in colours, which bear as a mark his name reversed,
In the Almanac of 1776 Gerault's factory does not appear. Two are mentioned-Meziere and Meziere jeune, junior. Two years later Fedele appeared as a maker of faience, but in 1797 all of these had disappeared, the widow Baubreuil had built a fabrique for faience, and Grammont manufactured pottery with coloured paste or marbled body in imitation of the English variegated wares.
The places around Orleans which had their fabriques were St. Marceau, its suburb, Gien, St. Die, and Chateaudun. Gien faience, marked with the name, decorated with flowers in colours like the Marseilles ware, is common enough. The productions of the other towns have still to be discovered. At Chaumont-sur-Loire J. B. Nini, a modern manufacturer, has produced an interesting series of medallions in terra cotta, distinguished by their refinement.