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The Moonlight Garden
The Water Garden
The Rock Garden
The Wild Flower Garden
The Court Of The Queen Of Flowers
The Children's Garden
The Bulb Garden
The Indoor Garden
The Garden That Faces Four Ways
What Can Be Done With Half An Acre
Old And New Flowers For The Garden
Where Are And Nature Meet
Our Birds And Our Gardens
The Flower Spectrum
Garden Friends And Foes
Trees And Tree Planting
Window Box Gardening
Flowers For Cutting
The More Common Garden Flowers And How To Grow Them
( Originally Published Early 1900's )
ACONITUM (Monkshood). Perennial; dark and light blue; also a less strong yellow variety; June-July; height, two feet or more; in some climates may be treated as a vine. Requires rich, moist soil, preferably with some shade. Should be planted at a distance from the vegetable garden, as the root closely resembles that of the horse radish, but is highly poisonous. The seed requires months to germinate; propagation, therefore, is best done by division of the root.
AGERATUM (Pussy-foot). Annual; pale violet-blue; also white or pink; July to frost; four inches to two feet. The ageratum will succeed in any good garden soil. It is self-sowing to a considerable extent, and if faded flowers be removed, will bloom for the entire summer. Sow outdoors when danger of frost is over.
ALTHEA (Hollyhock). Perennial; a11 shades except blue; June-August; five to eight feet. Hollyhocks should be given rich soil and a sunny position, and should be frequently watered in dry weather. They are heavily self-sowing, although the seed does not run true to strain. Once established, they will provide sufficient seedlings to obviate the necessity for further sowing. If seed is to be sown, let it be done in spring, and young plants removed to permanent positions before frost. The bloom may be greatly prolonged by care in plucking off seed pods as soon as they are formed. Give plants manure before blooming, and protection in the winter. Hollyhocks are subject to "rust".
ALYSSUM. The annual variety is white and about one foot in height. There are also lavender and yel low varieties. It blooms in June and continues at intervals until frost. It prefers sandy soil, and should be sown thinly to avoid resetting. The perennial variety (yellow, May) is perfectly hardy. It should have well-drained sandy soil, and full sun. It may be propagated by seed or by root division.
ANCHUSA. Perennial; blue; blooming in June, and growing to a height of about five feet. There is also a dwarf variety. It does best in light, rich soil, and sun, but does well also in partial shade. Plenty of water and cultivation from time to time will improve it. If cut back, a second bloom may be had in August. As the root gets older, it deteriorates, on account of its tendency to become hollow and to become waterlogged. It is fairly self-sowing, however, and therefore a bed may be left in safety for some time. Propagate by seed, and cover in winter.
ANEMONE Japonica. Perennial; pink or white; September; about two feet. The anemone prefers rich, moist soil, and some shade. It should be given plenty of water in hot weather. It must also be heavily protected in winter, and even so is unlikely to survive in northern climates. When once established it should be disturbed as little as possible. If seed be sown, it should be sown in the hot bed, and protected with paper until the young plants appear. When these are transplanted they should be set where they are to remain, a foot apart. Especial mention should be made, in speaking of this flower, of the variety known as Queen Charlotte, an exquisite shade of shell-pink. ANTIRRHINUM (Snapdragon). Properly speaking, a perennial, though in the north it must be treated like an annual. Every color except blue, blooming in June and July, and about two f eet in height, although there are dwarf and tall varieties. This plant should be given light, rich soil, and ample sun. The strength of the plant will be augmented if not allowed to flower too soon. Cutting off of the seed pods will prolong the period of bloom. The plant is subject to withering of the leaves.
AQUILEGIA (Columbine). Perennial; pink, white, yellow or blue, as well as the wild red-and-yellow va; riety. Blooming in May and June, and about two feet in height. The aquilegia should be provided with a rich, moist soil, and will grow in either sun or partial shade. It is self-sowing to some extent, although the seedlings do not come true. It is quite hardy, and requires little care.
ASTER. Annual; pink, white or blue. These flowers bloom from August until frost, and vary from two to three feet in height. Each plant should be given a space of about six inches. It likes a light rich soil, which should be well mixed with lime if it tends towards sourness. Pulverized sheep manure seems to suit it particularly, and ashes spread about each plant are said to stiffen the stems, while they certainly help to keep away the pest, the aster beetle. The aster is also subject to "yellows". Early sown plants seem more free from disease than those which are planted later. The perennial variety is closely allied to the wild aster of our native fields.
BELLIS (English daisy). Perennial; pink or white; May; about four inches high. This flower does best in moist, rich soil under the shade of trees. It may be raised from seed sown about the middle of the summer, or the root may be divided in September. It should be given protection in winter.
CALENDULA (Pot marigold). Annual; yellow or white; June to frost; about eighteen inches in height. The calendula likes rich soil, and responds to watering, although it does not require it. It should be sown thinly to avoid resetting, and plants will do best if about a foot apart. It will succeed with practically no care.
CALLIOPSIS. Annual; red and yellow or yellow; blooming from June until October, and about eighteen inches in height. This gay little blossom may be sown out-doors in May. It will thrive in almost any soil and should be given about a foot of space to each plant.
CAMPANULA (Canterbury bell). White, blue, and a charming shade of delicate pink. It blooms in June and July, and by proper plucking off of seed pods the season may be prolonged considerably. There are various varieties, among which may be mentioned the persicifolia (perennial, three feet) and the lactifloria (perennial, four feet), and the three-foot, self-sowing Campanul'a medium-perhaps the most satisfactory of them all-with its close relation, the calycanthema, both of which are biennial. All of these will do well in any good soil, and in a sunny position. They should be protected in winter; and if possible it is well, though not necessary, to winter seedlings in a cold frame.
CELOSIA. Annual; red or yellow; one to three feet; July and August. There are two varieties of this plant, the cristata, or old-fashioned cockscomb, and the plumosa, or prince's feather. Both do well in a light soil with frequent watering, while the plumosa is very powerfully self-sowing. If sown in May these will bloom in August, and it may be noted that the plants are strengthened by transplanting.
CENTAUREA (Bachelor's button). Annual; blue, pink, white; June-July; two feet. The annual variety will grow almost anywhere, if set in the sun, and should be given a six-inch space to each plant. They are heavily self-sowing, and require no care. There is also a perennial variety, which may be had in pink, white or yellow.
CHEIRANTHUS (Wallflower). Biennial; yellow, red, white; August; one foot. This charming and sweetscented little flower is not hardy in northern cli mates, and so is best treated as an annual. If seed be sown early in March, it may be set out in May. Plants should have rich, moist soil, and good sun; a space of from eight to twelve inches about each one will be found to be of benefit. CHRYSANTHEMUM. Perennial; red, pink, white, yellow. Blooming during September and October, these plants grow to a height of about three feet. The largest-flowered varieties sold by city florists are not hardy, but those which are so, are exceedingly satisfactory. The most hardy ones are of the pompon variety. Chrysanthemums need very rich soil with plenty of water and sun. They should also be well protected during the winter. The size and quality of the blooms may be increased by pinching off flower buds as they form, and only permitting a few to develop on each plant. If covered at night after the arrival of cold weather, they may be made to last until late in the fall.
CONVALLARIA (Lily of the valley). Perennial; white; May; six inches. These blossoms do best in rich soil, mixed with leaf mould, and may be planted in a spot where they will have some sun, though because of their willingness to bloom in the shade, shady places are usually awarded them. They should be set with the root-crowns just below the soil, and do not reach the height of their bloom until two years after planting. They should be divided occasionally, in the fall or the early spring, and are benefited by a dressing of manure in September.
COREOPSIS. Perennial; yellow; June until frost; two feet. The coreopsis will grow in almost any soil, if it be but given sun. It is sometimes a little hard to start, but once established, requires no care, and spreads rapidly. It may be raised from, seed.
Cosmos. Annual; pink, white or red; four to six feet. There are both early and late-blooming varieties of this attractive flower, and of these, the late blooming is the handsomer, but is sometimes avoided by gardeners because of its tendency to be overtaken by frost. If planted outdoors early, however, or started in the house in flats, even this variety may be enjoyed for some time before the cold weather takes its toll. While the cosmos is not over-nice in regard to soil, it requires sun and is benefited by plenty of water, though it does not demand it. It should be given a two-foot space, and should be carefully staked.
DAHLIA. Every color except blue; August and September; five feet. The dahlia may be grown from roots or seed. The latter should be started in doors before the frost is out of the ground. It does not run true, but often results in such beautiful variations of the parent bloom that its unreliability is rather an advantage than a drawback. In re-setting, seed-grown plants should be shaded when first put in. In handling the root, tubers should be set out three feet apart after danger of frost is over. After blooming they should be lifted, thoroughly dried, and stored in sand in a dry cellar, out of the way of mice and frost. In the spring they may be started, also in sand, the crowns set just below the top of the soil. When sprouted, the root may be divided, taking care to include in each division, an "eye" or bud, which will not be visible on the dry root. The dahlia requires sun and water, but not a particu larly good soil. It is subject to the cutworm and borer.
DATURA. Annual; white; July; three feet. The datura should be given rich soil and a sunny situation. It may be wintered successfully in the house, and when this is done will bloom earlier the succeeding year.
DELPHINIUM (Larkspur). Perennial; blue and white; three to six feet. The plant blooms first in June, but if the seed pods be promptly removed a sec ond blooming may be had in August. The delphinium requires rich, moist soil and sun. It should be given an eighteen-inch space, and is best propagated by division of the root, which should, for the good of the plant, be done every third year. The seed does not run true, and seed-grown plants do not come to perfection until their third year. The plants should be watered in hot weather. The blue varieties are more sturdy than the white, though all should receive covering in winter. Coal ashes and lime should be spread about each plant to prevent slugs and crown rot. They are also subject to blight. The annual larkspur maybe sown outdoors in May. Plants should be reset to one foot apart. They will grow to a height of two feet and are to be had in pink, white, blue, lavender and red.
DIANTHUS (Pink). Perennial; pink, white, red; JuneJuly; one foot. There are numerous varieties of the pink, all of which do best in rich, well-fertilized soil. The caryophyllus, or clove pink is not hardy nor is, of course, the annual variety, Heddewigi (Japanese pink) ; but the old-fashioned garden pink (plumarius) is so, with protection in the winter. The dianthus barbatus, or sweet William, is a biennial, two feet in height, and may be had in red, pink or white. It is to some extent selfsowing, but should be renewed from year to year, as it has a tendency to run out.
DIELYTRA (Bleeding heart). Perennial; pink; May; four feet. This should be given fairly rich soil, and prefers sun, though it will grow in the shade. It is propagated by division, and should be given ample room in which to spread. As the plant turns yellow and withers down after blooming, it is well to make preparation for concealing, by some later-blooming plant, the space which will be left by it in the summer.
DIGITALIS (Foxglove). Biennial; pink, red and white. Blooming in June, and often attaining the height of six feet. The digitalis prefers rich, moist soil, and should have a space of two feet for every plant. It blooms in the sun, or in partial shade. If cut back after blooming, a second crop of flowers may be had in the late summer. It is thickly self-sowing, and should be covered carefully in winter, the seedlings not being reset until the succeeding spring.
DIMORPHOTHECA (African daisy). Annual; yellow; July to frost; one foot. The dimorphotheca is valuable where a mass of yellow is desired, and requires only ordinary garden soil and the full glare of the sun. Seed may be sown out of doors as soon as the frost is out of the ground. It thrives in the driest soil.
ECHINOPS (Globe thistle). Perennial; steel blue; July; four feet. This plant does well in any good garden soil, in full sun. It is exceedingly striking, with its flowers resembling balls of blue.
ERYNGIUM (Sea holly). Perennial; blue; July; two and a half feet. This plant is another striking blue flower, and requires very sandy soil and sun. It is, however, exceedingly difficult to winter. FUNKIA (Day lily). Perennial; blue or white; three feet; August. The day lily should be given moist soil, with plenty of water during drought. It should be set in partial shade, and when once established, disturbed as little as possible. It should not be crowded, to which end it is well to enlarge the bed a. little every spring, or to remove some of the plants, which may be propagated by root division very early in the year.
GAILLARDIA (Blanket flower). Perennial; yellow; June until frost; two feet. This may be grown in any good garden soil, and should be given a one-foot space to each plant. It is propagated by seed. There is also an annual variety, lower in growth, in white, yellow or pink.
GALEGA (Goat's rue). Perennial; pink or white; JulyAugust; three to four feet. The galega is a freeflowering plant, and requires sun and a rather rich soil. It should be allowed a considerable spacefrom a foot to eighteen inches-to secure the best effect, and may be propagated by seed or root division.
GLADIOLUS. Bulb; all colors; two feet; August. Bulbs should be set three inches deep in rich soil and in a sunny spot. If planted in soil mixed with ashes, it is said that the stems will be strengthened, but in ordinary soil this is not usually necessary. The deeper the bulbs are set, the less necessary will staking the plants be found, although, of course, the period of bloom will be deferred. Plenty of water and an occasional dressing of pulverized sheep manure will be found to produce beneficial results. After the bloom is over, the bulbs should be left in the ground until the leaves are thoroughly withered, and then lifted and stored for the winter in a cool dry place. To ensure a succession of bloom, successive plantings may be made. The gladiolus is subject to black rot (see p. 151). GYPSOPHILA (Baby's breath). Perennial; white; July; three feet. Perfectly hardy, and prefers a dry, sunny spot. Should be given at least a f oot of space. Unlike other plants, the blooms of the gypsophila, when faded, should not be removed until the fall, as to do so results in injury to the plant.
HELENIUM (Sneezewort). Perennial; red or yellow; August and September; five feet. Will thrive in any good garden soil, but responds particularly to moisture. It spreads rapidly, and each plant should have, if possible, an eighteen-inch space. The roots are subject to the white aphis (see p.146) and the plant itself to the black aphis (see p. 145). HEL IANTHUS (Sunflower). Annual; yellow or red; August; six to eight feet. Any good soil, with plenty of sun and space-say, two to three feet. There is also a less showy perennial variety.
HELICHRYSUM (Strawflower). Annual; red, yellow, pink, white; August; two feet. Any good garden soil and full sun. This blossom, which is of the everlasting type, should be sown. where it is to grow, and does better if not transplanted. HEMEROCALLIS. Perennial; yellow or orange; June; three feet. There are two varieties of this plant, the yellow (flava) and the tawny lily (fulva) so widely seen about the countryside that it may almost be considered as a wildflower. There is apt to be confusion in obtaining the former, on account of the similarity of name, although there is no comparison between the two in point of desirability. While the fulva masses well at a distance, the flava is by far the more satisfactory. The former will flourish almost anywhere, and is absolutely hardy. The latter should have rich soil, with some moisture, and, as in the case of other lilies, no manure should be allowed to come in contact with the roots. Both spread from the root, and are propagated by division, although they should be left undisturbed as far as possible.
HIBISCUS (Rose Mallow). Perennial; pink, white or red; July-August; four to six feet. This plant, although growing in swamps in its natural state, will also thrive in dry soil. It should be well protected in the winter.
HYACINTFIUS CANDICANS (Summer hyacinth). Hardy bulb; white; July; three feet. Place in rich, welldrained soil and protect during the winter. Under these conditions the plant may be left undisturbed for years.
IBERIS (Candytuft). Annual; white or pink; June; one foot high. Will grow abundantly in any good soil, in a sunny situation. Sow thinly to avoid re setting. The perennial variety, also in white, closely resembles it, and is a foot in height. It may be propagated by spring-sown seed or by division, and requires the same treatment as the annual variety.
IMPATIENS (Balsam). Annual; white and all shades of red and pink; two feet high; July. This blossom will grow and sow itself under almost any conditions, if given fair soil and sun. It is heavily self-sowing, but is improved by transplanting. If each plant be given considerable space-say six or eight inches-a great improvement in the appearance of each one will result.
IPOMEA (Morning glory). Annual; purple, pink, white; July-August. This attractive vine does best in rich, moist earth. It is well to soak the seed for twenty-four hours in warm water before planting. The plant of the moonflower, another variety of the same family, does not grow so large, but puts forth very beautiful, large, white blossoms. It requires the same treatment.
IRIS. Perennial; all colors; May-June; three feet. The German type of iris, which is the first to bloom, is perfectly hardy, and requires a well drained soil with good sun. The Siberian type, which is next in flowering, will grow well in a moist spot, but does not insist upon it. The Japanese, which are the last to bloom, like an abundance of water, but as they must not be allowed to remain in wet ground during the winter, it is well to set them in a dry spot, and to furnish them with plenty of water, especially just before they bloom. The Siberian iris may also be treated in this way with success. After flowering, the plants may be divided, and the roots reset to half their depth. The new plants, however, will not become well established for some time.
LATHYRUS (Sweet pea). Annual; all colors; July; five feet. In growing sweet peas, it must be remembered that it is essential to secure deep roots, in order that the plant may be able to draw sufficient moisture from the earth during the heat of summer. To do so, a. trench should be dug some eight inches deep, and the bottom of it filled with two inches of manure and a covering of good loam. Here the seed should be sown sparingly, as transplanting is apt to be unsatisfactory, and the plants left where they are to remain, removing the weaker ones, if they become too crowded. As they grow, the trench may be filled up with earth until it is level with the surface of the ground. A further good method of inducing the roots to stretch out for their food is to dig another trench a few inches from the plant, and to fill it with manure. If water be poured into this every day, the roots of the plants will reach out to secure it. The sweet pea should be sown as early as possible, as a little cold weather will do it no harm. It must be set well in the sun.
LIATRIS (Kansas gay feather). Perennial; purplish pink; July; four feet. This satisfactory plant will grow under almost any conditions, and is per fectly hardy. It prefers good soil and partial shade, but may be utilized in dry situations where garden conditions are untoward. It is propagated by seed or by root division.
LILIUM. The various-.varieties of lilies are so many that it is impossible to give a full account of them here. Among those which should be found in every garden are the auratum (three feet; July; white with yellow banding on the petals and most deliciously scented; very prolific, often bearing as many as ten enormous blossoms on one stem). This requires a well-drained, sunny situation, with wet soil. It should be set six inches below the surface of the soil and mulched, so that the surface of the ground may always be kept fresh and cool. Unfortunately in this country the bulb tends to deteriorate and finally to disappear. It should be planted in the fall. The speciosum types (album rubrum and melponaene) bloom somewhat later, and should be treated in much the same way as the auratum. They may be set in partial shade. The Lilium candidum, or Madonna lily, blooms in June. It does not do well in moisture or shade, but should be given sun and a good rich soil. All lilies should be planted deep, and each bulb should be set in a handful of sand to prevent manure from coming in contact with it. They are all the better for a mulch of grass, as suggested for the Lilium auratum, For disease preventive.
LONICERA (Honeysuckle). White and yellow; JuneJuly. This hardy vine does well in any good soil and in the sun. It is never at ease as a climbing vine, however; and if possible should be given a stone wall or other such support, so that it may stretch itself out to its heart's content.
LUPINE. Perennial; pink, blue, white; May-June; three feet. This flower will do well in any good well-drained soil, preferably sandy. It should be given a one-foot space, and requires no protection in the winter. It is self-sowing to some extent, and may be grown from seed or by division of the root. It responds to watering, though it does not require it.
LYCHNIS. Perennial; two feet. There are two varieties of this attractive blossom, the viscaria, which blooms in May and which is a. striking shade of purplish pink, and the Chalcedonica, which flowers in July and is of a vivid scarlet, and somewhat reminiscent of the verbena in form. The former grows in spikes, and is particularly hardy, resistant to drought and self-sowing. The latter is a strong grower, but takes some little effort to establish firmly. Neither variety is particular in its requirements, but both do best in good soil and sun.
MATTHIOLA (Stock). Annual; pink, white, lavender; July; one foot. The stock is only a half-hardy annual, and should, therefore if grown from seed, be started in the house in March or April, and will bloom approximately ten weeks after sowing. It will grow in any good garden soil, but prefers a rich one, with plenty of moisture, and ample sun.
MATRICARIA (Feverfew). This plant, though listed as a tender perennial, is best treated as an annual. White; June to frost; eighteen inches in height. It is, if anything, too easy of culture, sowing itself heavily, year after year, and threatening to take possession of the garden. It will grow anywhere, but prefers good soil and sun.
MIRABILIS (Four-o'clock). Annual; all colors except blue; August; three feet. This charming oldfashioned flower may be sown in open ground, and requires little care. It should be given a rich, moist soil if possible, but will grow under less favorable conditions. Especially valuable, if set about a foot apart, where a solid border or hedge is desired. It blooms, of course, only in half-light. MONARDA (Sweet Mary). Perennial; red; July-August; three feet. This exceedingly decorative and perfectly hardy plant, with its cousin, the purple bergamot, will thrive in partial shade or in full sun, and in any soil, although it prefers good loam. It grows fast and should be divided often.
The division should be done, preferably, in the fall, but the plant is so hardy that liberties may be taken with it, and with care it may even be divided during the blooming season.
MONTBRETIA. Bulb; yellow or red; August; one foot. Although listed as a hardy bulb, it will not be found safe to leave montbretia bulbs in the ground during the winter in the north-say in the latitude of New York. In climates which permit, however, this should be done. They cannot be depended upon to survive in the north unless the season is exceptionally mild. They may be wintered in damp earth in a cool cellar and set out in the spring. They need a moist, but well-drained soil and sun.
MYSOTIS (Forget-me-not). Biennial; pale blue; MayJune; six inches. Self-sowing to so great a degree that a bed once started will, even with con siderable loss in wintering, keep the rest of the garden supplied with plants. They thrive in any good soil, and are hardy, though they are the better for some protection in cold weather. The swamp variety (palustris) is a perennial, and may be grown in any good soil, if not allowed to suffer from drought.
NICOTIANA (Tobacco). The best variety of this plant is the aflinis, which may be had in white or (less satisfactory) pink. Annual; July-August; three feet. So abundantly self-sowing that once established, it will be found unnecessary to sow again for many years. The plants prefer rich soil and partial shade, and do not open in the bright sun. If each plant be given an eighteen-inch space a surprisingly stout and handsome bush will be the result; they are also good in massing. The starshaped blossoms are moderately decorative by day; their chief attraction is their delicious perfume, especially powerful at night, and in the charming showing which they make after dark.
NIGELLA (Love-in-the-mist). Annual; blue (also a less desirable white variety) ; August. The only variety now procurable seems to be that eighteen inches in height, although in old-fashioned gardens this plant could be seen about twice that size. It should be sown in open ground in May, in any good soil, and when large enough reset, allowing a twelve-inch space to every plant.
PENSTEMON. White, purple, scarlet; June-July; three feet. These plants may be sown indoors in March or outdoors in April, in partial shade, and rich, well-drained soil. They require plenty of water, but should not be allowed to stand in a spot which is damp in winter. They should be covered in cold weather, and may be propagated by seed or by division.
PEONY. Herbaceous shrub; pink, white or red; May and early June; three feet. In setting peony roots, the crowns should be three inches below the surface of the ground, and no manure should be permitted to touch the roots. They require excessively rich soil, and may be placed in sun or shade. In the fall, the stems should not be cut, but bent down until they reach the ground, and a covering of manure placed over the plants. This may be worked in in the spring. Water at flowering time will also be found of benefit: In the case of tree peonies, which form their flowerbuds the year before they bloom, the stems should not be bent, but, as they require considerable protection, a wooden box may be turned over them, and the interstices filled with dry leaves. They are subject to a blight of the flowerbuds, and to yellowing of the leaves. They may be propagated by division of the root in September or October. It may be noted that the peony, which blooms at about the time of the spring rains, is often so crushed and beaten into the earth that it can be enjoyed for only a short period. If it be staked with an adjustable wire about it, its span of, life will be greatly prolonged.
PETUNIA. Annual; pink, white and purple; June to frost; two feet. Sow in March in the house, or outdoors in May, in any good soil and in the hot test sun. Petunias will grow under practically any conditions, but will respond to care and frequent watering. Each plant should have an eightinch space, and the more ordinary varieties (among which may be mentioned the very prolific and free-flowering Rosy Morn) are heavily selfsowing. The double frilled and ruffled varieties are almost impossible for the amateur to raise from seed, and are best purchased from some reliable seedsman. If attempted they should be sown in the finest powdered earth, and the seed pressed in with a. board. Of these, it is noticeable that the weakest plants bear the finest blooms.
PHLOX. Perennial; white, red, blue, purple, pink; August; four feet. The perennial phlox is the backbone of the garden, and will grow under almost any conditions, though it prefers rich, moist soil. It is benefited by a working in of manure in summer, and by occasional watering in hot weather. It is perfectly hardy, and is best propagated by division, since every plant is the better for division every third year, and the seedlings tend to revert to the all-too-common shade of purplish pink. It grows equally well in sun or partial shade. If faded flower heads be removed promptly, a second crop of bloom may be enjoyed late in the summer. The Phlox sublata, or creeping variety, is also a perennial, blooming in May, and requiring a sunny situation and protection in winter. The Phlox P. rummondii is an annual dwarf variety, a foot high, which if sown in May will bloom in July, doing best in light, rich soil and partial shade. Both are free-blooming, and useful where a heavy border or a carpet of flowers is desired. PHYSOSTEGIA (False dragon's head). Perennial; pink or white; July-August; four feet. This plant requires almost no care, and does best in moist, rich soil and sun, though it is not particular as to its whereabouts. The plants may be given a two-foot space, as they spread rapidly, and are a11 the better for occasional lifting and division. This should be done in the spring. Perfectly hardy. PLATYCODON. Perennial; blue or white; July-August; three feet. . A charming plant with great bellshaped flowers, which is less well-known than it deserves. It will grow in sun or partial shade, in any good, well-drained garden soil. It is very hardy, and will succeed, even with considerable neglect. Best propagated by division, which should be done in the spring.
POLEMONIUM (Greek valerian). Perennial; blue or white; June; eighteen inches. If cut back after blooming a second crop of flowers may be had in August. Rich soil with partial shade and moisture is the preference of the polemonium, although it will succeed under less favorable conditions. It sows itself to some extent, but is best propagated by division of the root.
PAPAVER (Poppy). Annual variety; red, pink, white; June-July; eighteen inches. This variety should be sown in early May, in finely sifted soil. As the seed is fine, it is well to mix it with sand, and to scatter the whole over the bed; it should then be covered with a mulch of grass clippings which may be removed when it begins to sprout. The seed should be watered with a fine spray from time to time, and may best be set in sandy soil. Plants cannot be transplanted. They are to some extent self-sowing.
The California poppy may be had in yellow and in white. It also is an annual, and like the Shirley poppy, will not bear transplanting. It is, however, easier to grow.
The Iceland poppy is, properly speaking, a perennial, but does best if sown every second year. It should have a good soil, sun, and covering in the winter. It may be had in white, yellow, orange and red.
The Oriental poppy is one of the most beautiful additions to the garden. It is a perennial, and may be had in red, pink or white. (Especial mention should be made of the Princess Ena., a very lovely pink.) It grows to a height of three feet, and needs good soil and sun; while once established, it requires little care. The plants are propagated by seed or by division in August. Most of the failures in growing are due to an effort to transplant at the wrong season; but if care be observed in this, the Oriental poppy is at once easy to grow, and one of the greatest attractions of the garden in the spring.
PORTULACA. Annual; variegated; two inches; July-August. The seed of this plant should be raked into the ground (more is not necessary) at the end of April, and when the plants are large enough, transplanted to four inches apart. The soil should be rather poor and sandy, and in full sun. The mass of gay little blossoms with which the plants will be covered will add a touch of brightness to any spot where they are sown.
PYRETHRUM. Perennial; a11 colors except blue; June; two feet. Give a rich, sandy, well-drained loam, with a mulch of manure in winter. If cut back after blooming a second crop of flowers will follow. The plants are propagated by division and by seed.
The double varieties, which are difficult to grow, are said to be responsible for the enthusiasm with which this flower is always mentioned in the seedsmen's catalogues. The single variety, which is far more common, is free-flowering and pretty, but will probably disappoint those who have procured the flower on the recommendation of the seedsmen. RANUNCULUS (Fair Maids of France). Perennial; yellow; June; two feet. A bright, pretty flower, requiring little care, beyond a good garden soil and sun. A glorified buttercup.
RESEDA (Mignonette). Annual; green; one foot; July. Sow outdoors in May in a light, sandy soil, and allow ample space to each plant, as they do not transplant successfully.
RUDBECHIA. The most common variety of this plant is the one commonly known as golden glow. (Per ennial; yellow; August; six feet.) This plant will grow under practically any conditions, and may be depended upon to add brightness to any spot where it may be planted. Its many excellencies are apt to be overlooked in consequence of its ubiquity in this respect. It is perfectly hardy.
The rudbeckia purpurea, or coneflower (perennial; dull pink, with a striking velvety brown center; July-August; four feet) is less well-known, but is one of our most valuable perennials. It will grow in any soil, although it prefers a rich one, and is indifferent to sun or shade. Each plant should be given an eighteen-inch space. It is perfectly hardy.
SALPIGLOSSIS (Serpent's tongue). Annual; all colors; July-August; three feet. Not among the plants which are easiest of culture, but well worth trying. It should be sown outdoors as soon as danger of frost is over, in well sifted earth, the seed being sprinkled over the surface and pressed in lightly with a board. The plants should be given plenty of water, and a six-inch space. They are benefited by frequent transplanting.
SALVIA. Annual; red, blue; August-September; two feet. Each plant should be given an eighteen-inch space, a sandy soil, and sun. They may be sown out of doors in May, or in flats in the house in April. Although really a tender perennial they cannot be carried through the winters in the north, and for this reason are best treated as an annual. There is also a satisfactory perennial variety which is hardy in our climate.
SCABIOSA (Mourning bride). Annual; white, pink, lavender and black; August; two feet. These are among the most delicate and graceful of the old fashioned flowers. They are grown from seed sown in May, and should be transplanted to give every plant a six-inch space. They will grow in any good garden soil. There is also a good perennial' variety.
SEDUM (Stonecrop). Perennial; pink, yellow, white; August; two feet; also good dwarf varieties. This accommodating plant grows best in sandy, clay soil, or among rocks, in the full glare of the sun. It is perfectly hardy, and when in bloom is covered with a solid mass of blossoms.
SENECIO (Groundsel). Perennial; yellow; August; two feet. This plant does best in moist, rich soil, but will grow in any good loam, especially if well watered. It should be given a two-foot space. It is not as well-known in this country as it deserves, but is well worth the growing.
SIDALCEA. Perennial; pink; June; two feet. This attractive plant is another, better known abroad than in this country, but is a distinct addition to the garden. It should have rich soil and plenty of sun, and may be propagated by seed or by division.
TAGETES (Marigold). Annual; July. Marigolds may be had in tall or "African" variety (TagerteS erecta), which are in different shades of yellow, grow to a height of three feet and for their best development should be given an eighteen-inch space to each plant, or the low-growing French marigold (Tagetes patula), in red and yellow. Both sorts thrive in any soil, and seed may be planted outdoors in May.
TROPAEOLUM (Nasturtium). Annual; red, orange, yellow, white, pink, brown; June-October; six inches. These indestructible plants prefer dry, sandy soil, though a little water from time to time will hasten their development. Too rich soil makes them run to leaves. If sown outdoors in April they will bloom in June. They are subject to the black aphis.
TUBEROSE. Tender bulb; white; August; eighteen inches. The tuberose is valuable especially as an addition to the garden at night, when it makes a brave showing, and when its perfume is especially delicious. It may be set out as soon as danger of frost is over, and after blooming should be, when dry, lifted and stored in sand in a cool cellar. VALERIAN (Heliotrope). Perennial; white; June; two feet. This deliciously perfumed plant will grow in any soil, and only requires full sun. It is somewhat self-sowing, spreads rapidly, and may be propagated by seed or by division. The annual variety of heliotrope should be sown in hotbed or the house. in March, and will bloom by July. It is, however, the first of the flowers to go, as it has been one of the last to arrive, and will not survive the first touch of frost.
VERBASCUM (Mullein). Perennial; yellow; July; five feet. Any good garden soil and sun are the requirements of the verbascum. It takes some time to become firmly established, but is among the most stately and decorative of perennials when once it becomes adapted to its surroundings.
VERBENA. Annual; pink, white, purple; July to frost; six inches. It is well to soak the seed of the verbena in warm water for several hours before planting, since it is very slow to germinate. For this reason it should be started in the house in March. It is easy to transplant, and will thrive in any good soil, responding to moisture, although
not insisting upon it. Somewhat self-sowing. VERONICA (Lady-of-the-lake). Perennial; blue or white; July-August; three feet. A perfectly hardy perennial, which will grow in any soil. It may be propagated by seed or by division, and spreads fairly rapidly.
VIOLA. The Viola tricolor, or pansy, is best treated as a biennial. It may be had in all colors, and blooms from June to frost, if the seed pods be kept cut, reaching a height of six inches. It should be sown in the late summer, in time to become well started before frost, and covered in the winter; it will then bloom the, following spring. The plants require rich, sandy soil, partial shade, and plenty of water, as they suffer from the intense heat and drought in the summer. More than any other flower, the pansy is, as has been mentioned, dependent upon the removal of seed pods and withered blossoms if it is to continue blooming. If the old shoots be removed in July new growth will shortly appear, and a new and luxuriant crop of blossoms marks the early fall.
The Viola cornuta, or viola, known also as the tufted pansy, is exceedingly popular in England, although not yet widely known in this country. It is absolutely hardy, and should be given the same treatment as the pansy. The blotches which form the little "faces" on the pansy are here lacking, but, on the other hand, the perfume of the viola is delicate and delicious.
The Viola odorata, or violet, blooms in May, and requires partial shade, leaf mould and moisture. It is very difficult to grow, however, because of its tendency to revert to the common unscented wild violet.
YUCCA. Perennial; white; July; five feet. Sun and well-drained sandy loam, in sun or shade. It should have protection in the winter. If plants do not bloom as they should, often the moving of them to another place, although one varying slightly in conditions, will work wonders.
ZINNIA. Annual; all colors save blue; August to frost; two feet. Perhaps the most indestructible of all the garden annuals. Sow in May in any soil, and transplant to ten inches apart.