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Historical Sketch Of The Textiles
Mechanical Devices For Preparation Of Textiles
Geography Of The Cotton Trade
Prices Of Cotton Goods
Classes Of Wool
Production Of Wool
Manufacture Of Wool
Geography Of Wool Production
Mohair, Its Nature And Uses
Raw Silk Porduction
Imitations Of Silk
Construction, Color, And Finish Of Cloth
Dyeing And Printing
Care Of Textiles
( Originally Published Early 1900's )
General facts.-The facts regarding the production of raw wool in this country, the number of sheep, and our imports of wool may be best described by means of a report which was prepared by the U. S. Tariff Board in 1911.
Primary wool markets.-The raw wool markets of the world are of two classes, primary wool markets and concentration points. First, there are primary markets where the wool changes hands from the grower to dealer or other buyer. These primary markets are numerous and widely scattered, especially in this country. There are a few places, however, which because of their location in the sheep-range country have become prominently known as primary markets. Among these are Billings, Big Timber, and Great Falls in Montana, and San Francisco, San Diego, and Portland on the Pacific Coast.
Concentration points.-More important still are the concentration points, where raw wool is handled in large quantities, bought and sold by dealers and manufacturers, exporters and importers. London is the greatest wool market in the world. Here wools from all over the world, particularly the finer grades, are brought and sold to buyers from all parts of England, the Continent, and even the United States. Sydney in New South Wales, Australia, comes second in quantity and value of wool handled.
The growth of Sydney as a wool market has been rapid during the last few years. Formerly it was a point of export for London and other European markets, but now buyers are coming to Sydney from all manufacturing countries, from England, Scotland, Germany, France, Belgium, Austria, Italy, Japan, and the United States. Sydney now markets more merino wool than even London. It is also a primary market for large numbers of sheep in New South Wales. Some of the wool warehouses found there cover six to eight acres and are from five to six floors high. Mosf of them are equipped with the most modern arrangements for baling, for storage, and for keeping the wool in the proper condition.
The other principal markets of Australia are Melbourne, Geelong, Adelaide, and Brisbane. Cape Town in South Africa, Buenos Aires in Argentina, and Montevideo in Uruguay are other highly important wool markets.
The carpet wools are first marketed in the countries where produced. Among the important points from which America and England get carpet wools are Constantinople, Bagdad, Aleppo, and Smyrna, all in Turkish dominions; Karachi and Bombay in India; Tientsin and Shanghai in China; Urga and Biisk in Mongolia; and Rostoff, Odessa, and Moscow in Russia.
The chief raw wool market in the United States is Boston. Philadelphia comes second, while Chicago and New York are also important.
Centralization of wool manufacturing.-Wool manufacturing is very widely distributed in one form or another. In only the modern, highly improved machine processes is a decided centralization of production found. A few of the more important wool goods producing centers of the world are considered here.
United States.-In worsted goods Massachusetts ranks first among the American states; then come Pennsylvania and Rhode Island. Lawrence, Massachusetts; Providence, Rhode Island; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and Cleveland, Ohio, are the noted worsted producing cities of the country. Pennsylvania has the largest number of woolen mills, but Massachusetts produces the greatest amount of woolen cloth. Woolen goods are more widely produced than are the worsteds. Carpet and rug weaving is practically confined to Pennsylvania, New York, and Massachusetts. Of hosiery and knit goods, New York produces the most; Pennsylvania ranks second; Massachusetts, Illinois, Ohio, and Wisconsin follow in the order given.
England.-In England nearly three-fourths of the woolen industries are found in the western part of Yorkshire in or near the city of Bradford. Bradford is important as a distributing center of raw materials, as the center of worsted combing and spinning, and as the center for the production of worsted stuffs or dress goods for women's wear. Huddersfield is the center for the production of the best worsted goods for men's wear. Fancy cheap woolens made in imitation of Scotch tweeds are made in the Colne Valley near Huddersfield. Colne Valley woolens are known the world over as cheap materials. Heavy woolens, overcoatings, cheap cloalcings, blankets, and army cloths are made in and near Dewsbury and Batley. This is the center of the shoddy and rag business, and much of the reclaimed wool, by skillful blending and manipulation, is turned into cheap but serviceable fabrics. Fabrics made at Morley are the lowest quality made. Leeds, once noted for its broadcloths, has now taken up the manufacture of worsted coatings, serges, etc. Halifax is best known as a producer of worsted yarn. Rochdale in Lancashire is important for its flannels, Stroud in western England has the reputation of making the finest woolens in the world. Kidderminster is the most important carpet center; while Leicester, parts of Nottingham, and Derby are important in the production of hosiery.
Scotland.-In Scotland the manufacture of Scotch tweeds is an important industry, Galashiels being the most important center.
Germany.-Wool manufactories are found all over the German Empire. There is no such single important center as Bradford, England; furthermore the various localities each produce both woolens and worsteds. Some of the greatest manufacturing cities are Blumenthal, Hamburg, Leipzig, Dohren, Mylau, Plauen, Muhlhausen, Gera, Aachen, Breslau, and Forst. Among the nations, Germany is the third greatest producer of woolen goods in the world.
France.-In France, the Department of the North, which borders on Belgium, is the most important wool-manufacturing center. Nearly all the combing is done here, and most of the spinning and weaving as well. Roubaix is the chief city in the business. In a way its leadership is comparable to that of Bradford, England, but, of course, on a smaller scale. Tourcoing and Fourmies, other towns in the same department, are also important. The town of Elboeuf in Normandy compares with Leeds in England in the manufacture of worsteds. It does a miscellaneous business in both woolens and worsteds. Vienne on the Rhone River is the center of shoddy cloth manufacture, and the manufacture of blankets is largely confined to the surrounding towns. Mazamet does a remarkable business in the production of pulled wools from South American and Cape sheep skins. Wool velvets are produced in the Department of Somme and plushes in the Department of Aisne.