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( Originally Published 1913 )[an error occurred while processing this directive]
Edinburgh has a population of over 200,000 and is one of the most interesting and picturesque cities in Europe. It is built on two ridges of hills, the castle and old town being-on the highest. It has been called the Modern Athens, but whether for scholastic or topographical reasons I do not know ; it is certain, however, that the immense rock on which the castle stands, was admirably fitted by nature for an Acropolis. Formerly a lake or marsh existed between the old and new towns, but it has been drained and laid out in beautiful gardens along the margin of which lies Princes street, the finest modern street in the city. My hotel is on Prince,,, street, and opposite the beautiful monument to Sir Walter Scott, made familiar by prints and engravings to most Americans. This fine monument is erected. on a granite platform about thirty feet each way, and is in the form of an open spire, about two hundred feet high. The style is florid gothic, every device which that order will permit of having been used in its ornamentation. But one side of Princes street is built on, and looking from my window across the gardens, the castle, St. Giles' Cathedral and the lofty and antique buildings of the old town rise in picturesque and imposing irregularity.
It is said that a Roman fortification once occupied the site of the present castle. A part of the wall still remaining is ascribed to Edwin, a Northumbrian prince, who erected here a fortress known as Edwin's " Brugh," or strong hold. The present castle was, however, mainly built in the 15th century. Previous to that time a chapel, which still remains, was built by the pious Queen Margaret, who died in the castle A. D. 1093. This chapel is small, I should say not more than ten by sixteen feet, but is interesting and finely preserved. In olden time, from its isolated position on a high precipitous rock, the castle must have been regarded as a place of great strength.
It has furnished many stirring pages for the historian and scenes of romantic interest for,the novelist. When in possession of Edward ff. it was surprised and captured by thirty young Scotchmcn, who at night climbed the almost perpendicular rock, guided by one of their number who had learned to make the ascent to visit his sweetheart. In 1341 it was again captured from the English, this time in broad daylight and by stratagem. The Scotch general caused a cart loaded with wine to be sent to the garrison, which the driver managed to overturn in the gateway so the gate could not be closed. The scotch soldiers, who were concealed near the castle, rushed in and effected its capture. The old sally port is shown which Dundee climbed to have a conference with the Duke of Gordon, to persuade him to espouse the cause of James L, at a time- when a convention was in session at the parliament house near by, to settle the crown on William and Mary. It was in reference to this exploit of Dundee's that the popular song of " Bonnie Dundee " was written.
" Dundee he is mounted, he rides up the street,
The bells they ring backward, the drums they are beat;
But the Provost, douce man' said, ` Just e'en let him be,
Fur the town is weel rid o' that deil o" Dundee.' "
Over the portcullis gate is the old state prison where have pined many of Scotland's bravest nobles and chiefs. The grated window of the small room occupied by the Marquis of Argyle the night previous to his execution, is pointed out.
For a long series of years the castle was used as a palace as well as stronghold. It was here that Mary, Queen of Scots, resided when her son, afterwards James 1. of England, was born. The room where the event occurred is shown to visitors, also the window through which the infant prince, when eight days old, was let down two hundred and fifty feet to the pavement below, to be secretly conveyed to Stirling Castle. The old oak ceiling remains, also an interesting inscription on the wall, placed there by James 1. on his first visit to Scotland after his accession to the British ' throne. Like everything pertaining to the unfortunate Mary, it possesses interest, and is said to have been coin posed by her on the birth of her son.
" Lord Jesu Chryst that cronwnit was with Thornse
Preserve the birth quhais Badyie heir is borne, And send hir Sonne successive to reigne stille
Lang in this Realme, if that it be Thy will
Als grant O Lord quhat ever of Hir proseed Be to Thy Glorie. Hone and Prais sobied."
The room is now used for the sale of trinkets, as mementoes of the queen and castle, and as the almost sacred associations of the place are supposed to attach to them, about four times the usual price is asked.
In the tipper part of the same wing of the building is the crowl room Where the ancient regalia of Scotland are kept. They were discovered in an old oak chest, exhibited in the room, in 1818, having been concealed for over one hundred years. The crown is that of Robert Bruce, made in the 14th century, and used by the kings and queens of Scotland since that time. The sword of state was present ed to James IV. by pope Julius II. The sceptre is supposed to belong to the reign of James V. The gold collar and badge of the Order of the Garter were presented by Queen Elizabeth to James VI. of Scotland. The coronation ring of Charles I. is also among the crown jewels.
Near St. Margaret's Chapel stands the famous gun known as "Mons Meg," supposed to have been used at the siege of Mons in France, in 1476. It was injured in 1682 in firing a salute to the Duke of York ; was removed in 1684 to the T'ower of London, and restored to the castle in 1820 by George IV. The bore is twenty inches in diameter.
The modern barracks and officers' quarters were built III 1796, during the heat of the French war, and detract very much from the appearance of the castle as viewed from the outside. Sir Walter Scott compared them to a cotton mill. By the articles of the Union between England and Scotland, the castle must be kept fortified. It now contains about 60o soldiers, of a Scotch regiment, here known as "kilties," from their wearing the Highland kilt and going bare-kneed. I saw about 500 of them on parade today, each man exhibiting ten to twelve inches-extending above and below the knee-bare ! The weather is such that I have on my warmest underclothing and wear an overcoat. Our fashions may be much more ridiculous but hardly so uncomfortable.
From the castle the principal thoroughfare of the old town leads directly to Holyrood Palace and Abbey, distant about a mile. Leaving the esplanade we enter this thoroughfare at the Lawn-mvrket, and passing into High Street reach St. Giles' Cathedral, founded in 854 A. D., but several times rebuilt. St. Giles was born in Greece, but his arm bone--considered a precious treasure-having been presented to the city, he was accepted as Edinhurgh's patron saint. The arm has long since disappeared, and at the beginning of the Reformation his cherished image was taken from the church, ignominiously ducked in a pond by a mob, and afterwards burned. St. Giles' is cruciform, and a very large building. After the Reformation it was made to accommodate four congregations, and was used for the meetings of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. It was here, in 1643, that the Solemn League and Covenant was sworn to and signed by Parliament and General Assembly. It became the parish church of Edinburgh, and in it John Knox, its pastor, preached those stirring sermons that have become a part of the history of Scotland.
An incident that occurred in St. Giles' has often been told, and had at the time a wonderful influence in arousing popular sentiment against Prelacy, and effect:ng its overthrow. In 1637 an attempt was made to introduce the liturgy of Laud into Scotland, by authority, and the Bishop of Edinburgh had just asked the Dean to read the " Collect for the day," when a choleric Scotch woman named jenny Geddes, exclaimed, "Colic, said ye? the De'il colic the wame (belly) o' ye ; wud ye say mass at my lug?" Raising her stool, she sent it flying at the Dean's head, who is said to have barely escaped it. The stool I have seen at the Museum. It is a medium-sized camp stool ; and is duly venerated as one of the practical arguments used in the overthrow of prelacy and liturgies in Scotland. In front of the cathedral stands the shaft of the old Edinburgh Cross, recently- restored, on what is supposed to be its original site ; and on the north-west corner the site of the old Tolbooth, or "Heart of Mid-Lothian," is marked by the figure of a heart on the pavement.
In the rear of St. Giles' is the former Parliament House, used since the Union with England by the Law' Courts. The old Parliament Hall is about fifty by one hundred and twenty feet, and contains many fine pictures and statues The original oak ceiling, with its magnificently carved beans and panels, resting on curiously sculptured corbels, still remains. In Parliament Square is a fine statue of Charles IL; erected by the city in 1685. This site had been selected and a model prepared for a statue of Cromwell, but the Reformation changed the plans of the worthy Council. With that lofty fidelity to principle that marked the Vicar of Bray, whose religious creed-during the troublous times when England was alternately Catholic: and Protestantwas, to " live and die Vicar of Bray,"they hastened to put away the model of the grim Puritan, and erected this statue of the "Merry Monarch."
As I stepped out of the Parliament House, a machine whose use I did not at first comprehend, accompanied by a half-dozen men in uniform, halted in the square. The presence of a suction hose, and continued efforts to uncover a hole in the street, indicated that it must be a fire-engine. In style and finish it Would hardly compare with the ordi nary American mowing machine. There was a total absence of shining brass and nickel, and a chimney of about stove-pipe form and dimensions furnished an exit for the smoke. I learned that it was a new machine, to be tried in the presence of some officials who were to decide on its merits. The length of time consumed in preparations made one thankful that it was only an exhibition, and not a fire. Once at work the little machine surprised me by its efficiency. If equal in size to the gorgeous affairs that help to swell American tax-rolls, they would have nothing to boast of except their shine-and cost. The fire-engine, however, is not so prominent an affair here as in the United States. How little ground can be found in our oldest cities that has not been burned over at least once during the last hundred years ; and yet in Edinburgh I pass through street after street, two to three hundred years old, with not a single modern building to indicate the occurrence of a fire during that time.
Near St. Giles', on the opposite side of the street, is the house of John Knox. It was built in the year 1490, for a Scotch nobleman, whose coat of arms is carved in the wood work of some of the rooms, and is remarkably well pre served. Over the door is the inscription, " Lufe God abuf all, and ye nychtbour as yiself." On the south front is the place of most interest to visitors, his small study-I should say about 8x12 feet. Here were the purposes formed and the plans laid which more than all else revolutionized Scotland. The rooms contain many pictures of Knox, Archbishop Beton's pastoral staff, ancient thumb-screws, the martyr's iron girdle by which they were confined to the stake, and the famous gag applied to scolding women. A careful examination convinced me that this last would effectually answer the purpose for which it was constructed, while in use. In one of the front rooms is shown the preaching window from which, when no longer able to go to his church, Knox addressed his parishioners who stood in the street. Notwithstanding his reported severity of character, Knox is said to have been of an exceedingly social dishosition, and like ministers of that period, fond of what were called the " good things of this life." A few days before his death, he ordered his attendant to broach a cask of wine which he had received as a present, that he might share it with some friends, saying he was "not like to tarry tilt it be finished." He died in the principal room of the house in 1572, and was buried in the churchyard of St. Giles'. A stone in the pavement in front of the Parliament House, with the initials " I. K." marks the spot, and is the only public memorial of Knoti 1 have found in the city !
Continuing down High Street we reach Cannongate, a. street formerly occupied by the wealthy and aristocratic canons of Holyrobd. The houses present, if possible, a more antique appearance than those of High Street, and their peculiar architecture indicates that at one period this was the court end of the city. ;very house has a history, and over the doors the old armorial bearings are yet visible ; indeed, Cannongate has been called " Scottish history fossil ized." The Cannongate Tolbooth is claimed as a specimen of Scottish architecture, and must have once been considered an imposing building. In front of it, at the east end, is an old stone pillar to which slanderers and scolds were fastened by iron collars.
The streets between the castle and Holyrood are very narrow, and the buildings generally quite high. Though now dilapidated and mean, they were formerly the residences of the proudest of Scotland's nobles and chivalry, and many a kingly and knightly pageant has passed through these narrow streets. They are now mostly used for small stores, cheap boarding houses and tenements, whose swarming occupants protrude through the windows to gaze listlessly at the passers-by. On each side of the principal thoroughfare are entry-ways, leading into what are known as closes, in the rear of the buildings that front on the These street. These old closes are historic ground, and associated with them are many important incidents in Scottish history. The White Horse Close is mentioned in "Waverley" as the head-duarters of the Pretender's officers. Strichen's Close is noted as the residence of the " Bluidy Mackenzie," King's advocate under Charles 11. Lady Stair's Close, in which occurred some strange incidents told by Scott in "My Aunt Margaret's Mirror." Dunbar's Close, head-quarters of Cromwell after the battle of Dunbar. But a history of these old places would involve a history of the city, if not of Scotland. Prominent literary men have had their quarters in these closes. In St. James' Court, Boswell entertained 1)r. Johnson, before making the tour of the Hebrides ; in Riddle's Close, Hume wrote most of his "History of England ;" in Baxter's Close, Burns had his lodgings, and in Panmure (;lose Adam Smith resided.
These closes are now mostly mere rookeries, and contain the very dregs of the lower classes of society. Dirty and barefooted women, and half-clothed children, passed me in the entry-ways or scowled at me from doors and windows. Squalor and wretchedness reign supreme in dwellings once the abodes of valor, of learning, and of genius. A subsequent visit in the evening, in company of a traveling friend, disclosed an amount of drunkenness and disorderly carousing that I was not prepared to find in a Presbyterian "Alodern Athens."
Holyrood Abbey was founded by David I., in 1128, to commemorate his deliverance from a stag brought to bay in the hunting grounds, near the castle. Tradition says the king was saved by a mysterious cross, interposed between the royal person and the infuriated animal. All that now remains of the ancient abbey is the roofless walls of the chapel, containing the tombs of some of Scotland's kings and nobles. The floor is a mosaic of grass and tombstones. In this chapel, Charles I. was crowned King of Scotland, James II. married to Mary of Gueldres, James I If. to Margaret of Denmark, and Mary, Queen of Scots, to Darnley. The stone on which she knelt before the ancient altar is pointed out, and the susceptible visitor who has become interested in the sad history of
"The beauteous Queen
Upon whose heart, like canker in the leaf
The worm of many sorrows revelled."
may possibly find himself on bended knee on the well worn stone. The last time this chapel was used for worship, was by order of Janes VIL, when mass was said here, in the king's presence. In the Reformation which followed, this fact induced the mob to desecrate the tombs of the kings, and almost destroy the building.
Holyrood Palace is a large quadrangular stone building, and surrounds an open court about a hundred feet square. At each of the outside corners is a castellated tower, of what is known as the "pepper box " pattern. It was founded by James IV, in 1500 and used by him as a resi dence till his death at Flodden in 1513. The oldest part of the palace is the north-west tower, containing Queen Mary's apartments. The south wing is more modern and is fitted up for the use of the royal family of England, the Queen stopping here on her way to and from Balmoral, her summer residence in the Highlands. She is expected here in about two vweeks, on which occasion there is to be a grand review of volunteer militia, and the popular mind is wonderfully stirred in regard to the anticipated event. The newspapers are full of it and one hears little else talked of ; indeed the small boys of a country village could hardly exhibit more interest and excitement over the expected advent of a circus, than do those usually level-headed Scotch people over the review by the Queen.
The old State apartments are eshabited to the public, Land on entering the visitor is shown into an ancient hall about thirty by one hundred and fifty feet, used as a picture gallery. It contains portraits of a11 the Scottish kings, over one hundred in number, from Fergus, B. C. 300 (!) to James VII. They are of course nearly all fancy sketches, if the term fancy may be applied to such daubs, and are said to be the work of a single Dutch artist, who took the job by contract. He seems to have had a definite idea of about how a Scotch king should look, and has carried it out in every instance. The result is a sameness which has led an observing Scotchman to express his surprise that all the kings of Scotland should have "a nose resembling the knocker of a door."
The Queen's Audience Chamber has a finely carved oak ceiling, and the walls are covered with faded tapestry. It contains a state bed with embossed velvet curtains and embroidered pillow, used by Charles I. when he visited I:din burg to be crowned King of Scotland. It was also used by the Pretender previous to the battle- of Culloden, and afterwards by his conqueror, "proud Cumberland." The furniture is of the time of Charles L, finely carved, and has the peculiar gloss given by age. Near the entrance to this room is the spot where Rizzio is said to have been dragged after his murder by the conspirators. Standing by the place just thirty-five years ago, the blood stains seemed distinct, and wonderfully impressed my youthful imagination. That blood, shed by violence nearly 300 years before, should still marl: the old oak floor, would naturally appear to a boy, who had indulged his love of the marvelous by reading ail of the Scottish border tales within his reach, as a veritable miracle. I must confess, however, that a diligent search today failed to discover any stains or signs of blood, from which it is fair to conclude that my eyesight (or imagination ?) must be failing. The fireplace contains an old grate said to be the first used in Scotland, and it looks very much like the first grate. The shovel, poker and fender are no better, and would be considered bad jobs by any modern blacksmith.
From the audience room we enter Queen Mary's bedroom. It is about twenty feet square, has the usual carved oak ceiling, and the walls are covered with fine old tapestry representing scenes in heathen mythology. The hangings of the queen's bed are of crimson damask, with green fringe and tassels, changed by the silent hand of time to almost rags. Indeed it seems as if a breath of air through an open window would reduce to shreds the hangings of the royal bed. The linen sheets, as seen through the threadbare counterpane, are much better preserved. Among the antique furniture in the room is the queen's workbox, containing a piece of embroidery worked by her hand. The subject of this fancy needle-work is claimed to be "Jacob wrestling with the Angel." I failed to become interested in the contest through my inability to make out which was Jacob, and for a wonder the guide could afford me no information. He was evidently taken by surprise, and will no doubt have a ready answer for the next enquirer. One of the most suggestive relics in the room is the mirror of Queen Mary, whose great beauty would seem to have been a chief cause of her misfortunes.
From here we enter the small apartment, a mere closet, known as the queen's supper room. Here Mary, her sister the Duchess of Argyle, and Rizzio were sitting when the six conspirators, who had been preceded by Darnley, entered by a private stairway, brandishing their daggers before the queen, one of them holding a pistol to her breast. The wretched Rizzio was stabbed clinging to her dress and pleading piteously for mercy. The queen, in three months to become a mother, was forced into a chair by her husband and held by him till the conspirators had accomplished their purpose, leaving the dead Rizzio, with over fifty, dagger wounds, in the Audience Chamber. One can hardly see how so many persons could find even standing room in the little apartment where this tragedy, so often told in history and in fiction, occurred. The surroundings have not been changed in the least and imagination recalled the Scene so vividly that it was a relief to leave the dimly lighted room, and pass out, by the door to which Rizzio had clung in his death agony, into the clear sunlight.
The vicinity of the Abbey of Holyrood is said to he the only remaininb sanctuary in Scotland, affording protection to debtors where the bankruptcy is not charged as fraudulent. Protections are issued at the Abbey Court House. Curious stories are told of the hair breadth escapes of debtors who claimed the protection of the law. On Sunday they could go where they pleased, but woe be to the luckless debtor who failed to return to the privileged ground before Monday arrived. It is said on one occasion a fugitive closely pursued fell just as he was crossing the line. ills body was on the safe side but his legs were captured ; and now arose a tremendous question which troubled the big wigs awfully. It was finally decided, however, that as the bailiff could do nothing with the man's legs unless he had the body attached thereto, the debtor must be allowed to take his legs along with him.
In the old town are very many other places of interest, among them the Grassmarket, an ancient place of execution where so many of the "Scots Worthies" suffered for their religion. In the Cowgate is an Interesting old church where the General Assembly met in 1578, when it "was concludid that Bischopes sould be callit he their awin names, or be the names of Breither in all time coming, and that lordlie name and authoritie be banissed from the Kirk of God, quhilk lies bot ae Lord, Chryst Jesus."
Not far from the Grassnutrket is Greyfriars churchyard,, formerly the site of a monastery, but since 1566 used as a cemetery. An old flat tombstone is shown where in 1638 the congregation headed by the Earl of Sutherland, signed the Solemn League and Covenant, some 4 them writing their names with their own blood. Many notable men are buried here, but the most interesting Monument is known as the " Martyr's Monument," and the inscription tells a sad story of persecution. "From May 27, 1661, that the most noble Marquis of Argyle was beheaded, to the 17th Of February, 1688, that Mr. James Renwick suffered, were one way or other murdered and destroyed for the same cause, about eighteen thousand, of whom were executed at Edinburgh about one hundred of nohlemen,-gentlemen, ministers and others, noble martyrs for Jesus Christ. The most of them lie here." After the battle of Bothwell Bridge a. corner of this old graveyard was used as a prison--a sort of Andersonville-where, without shelter from the weather, and only four ounces of bread and a mouthful of water daily, the hundreds of Covenanters taken in that battle were so reduced in numbers by disease and starvation, that after Five months a small vessel was sufficient to convey the wretched survivors to Barbadoes. The methods employed at Andersonville do not seem to deserve even the poor credit of originality, for history informs us, that if one of these imprisoned Covenanters rose during the night, or passed a certain line during the day, he was shot by the guard.
The great height of the houses in the old town is ascribed to the desire of the inhabitants to find shelter within the rude walls built in x 450. The highest house I have found is eleven stories, and so irregular is the ground in some places that houses six to nine stories in front are but three to five stories in the rear. From some of the bridges one may look down the chinneys of the tall houses in the streets below.
The new town of Edinburgh is the growth of about a century, and will compare favorably with the modern portion of any city in Europe. Princes street, its principal thoroughfare, is about a mile long and only the north side of the street is built on. To the south, as before described, lie the gardens that separate it from the rocky ridges on which the old city is built. But I cannot afford to describe in detail the new town, its handsome public buildings, numerous and costly monuments, fine churches, beautiful squares, gardens and residences-all these could be duplicated with money. It is the old city that is the Edinburgh of history
" Edina! Scotia's darling seat "
of the poet.
The Antiquarian Gallery is in the new town and well repays a visit. It contains a large collection of curiosities from all countries, but is especially interesting for its Scottish remains and relics. Here we see John Knox's pulpit from St. Giles' church, and Jenny Geddes' stool, already referred to ; the original Solemn League and Covenant signed by Montrose and his associates ; a flag of Scotland that waved in the breeze at the battle of Dunbar in 1650, and a banner of the Covenanters captured at 13othwell Bridge ; a blue ribbon worn by Prince Charles as Knight of the Carter, and a ring given him by Flora McDonald at parting ; some nails from the coffin and a portion of the shroud of Robert Bruce ; the pistols of Robert Burns, and a glass from which Prince Charles drank before the disastrous fight at Culloden. There is also a rude guillotine called "'The Maiden," made of two upright posts, between which is a loaded axe to be raised by a cord and fall on the devoted neck beneath. By this identical instrument Regent Morton was beheaded in 1581, Sir John Gordon in 1644, , the Earl of Argyle in 1685, and at other times many others of lesser note.
Calton Hill is at the east end of Princes street, and not far from Holyrood Palace. It has a monument to Nelson , resembling very much a lighthouse, and about a. hundred feet high ; a dome supported by= pillars, in memory of Dugald Stewart ; and the unfinished National Monument, intended to reproduce on this elevated position the Parthenon at Athens. Its erection was to commemorate the Scotch heroes who fell at Waterloo, but after about a dozen immense Doric columns had been placed, at a cost of seventy thousand dollars, popular enthusiasm abated, the funds were lacking, and like a certain monument at Washington, it remains unfinished. The Royal Observatory, a fine Grecian building, is on Calton Hill, and in Calton churchyard is the tomb of David Hume. Not far distant, in St. David street, Hnme resided after acquiring fame and money by his writings. The name of this street is supposed to have been intended by the truly orthodox of Edinburgh as a slur on Hume, on account of his well known infidelity=. It was viewed in this light by his housekeeper, who appeared one morning in great wrath to inform him that a sign marked "St. David street" had been placed on the house. "Tut, tut, woman," said Hume, with an air of forced resignation, "don't mind it; many a better man than I has been called a saint."
can hardly be surpassed, Calton Hill seems to be the best point from which to take in the beauty of its scenery and surroundings. When but a youth I spent a whole summer day on Calton Hill, and the scene has lost none of its peculiar and striking interest from the many years that have intervened. Both the old and new towns are seen to advantage. The square, solid looking old palace of Holyrood is at your feet, and as you stand in the line of Princes street its Ion- avenue of buildings, monuments and gardens is in full view. On the opposite rocky and irregular ridge stands the old town, black with age, and terminating at its furthest and highest point in the castle rock, with its frowning fortifications. Beyond the old city, and forming an appropriate background, lie the Pentland hills. On the south, and quite near, rise Salisbury Crags and Arthurs seat, and flanking them, in the distance are seen the Hills of Lammennoor. West and north the whole Firth of Forth is in sight till it joins the German ocean, and in the foreground, between the Edinburgh and Fife shores, is the Island of Inchkeith. 7n the far west may be seen the top of Ben-lomond, and "Ben-ledi's distant hill." A gentleman, who had kindly called my attention to some of these places, pointed out in the far distance the identical "Grampian Hills " where "my father fed his flocks." How often have I pointed to these hills, (always over the right shoulder, and looking steadily in front,) when I was a small boy, and my name "Norval."
Leith, the port of Edinburgh, is nearly two miles distant from the east end of Princes street, but fine residences line the way between the two cities. Formerly a bitter rivalry existed betw een them, so intense that if a merchant of Edinburgh should take into partnership an inhabitant of Leith, he was heavily fined and deprived of the freedom of the city for a year. Commercial interests have forced the cities into close union, and, though separate municipalities, the growth of both has made them geographically one. On my walk to Leith I passed quite a number of the Newhaven fishwives in picturesque costume, carrying on their backs, supported by a strap across the top of the forehead, heavy baskets of fish for the Edinburgh market. They are wonderfully muscular, quite comely in appearance, and, in their way, neatly dressed. Their habits are singular, the men attending to the boats and fishing while the women do the marketing and carry the purse, allowing their husbands such sums as they deem proper for pocket money. An arrangement of this kind would suit an American woman admirably provided she could hire a German or Irish girl to carry the basket.
The better class of Scotch women seem much more healthy and robust than the same class in America. Contrasting the poorer classes of the two countries, the difference is not so marked, probably caused 1>y the hardships and lack of the good things of this life which the Scotch women of the lower classes are compelled to endure. Among this class both in Glasgow and Edinburgh I should say a majority go barefoot.
In Edinburgh there would seem to be no anxiety to do business, everybody appears to be taking it easy, willing to go slow and sure, rather than worry or take risks in order to get suddenly rich. The Scotch are shrewd and thrifty and said to be the only people among whom the Jews cannot get a foot-hold. The "canny Scot" is more than a match for the son of Abraham in a close bargain, and can econonuse wonderfully in his methods of doing business. In the rural districts even the dwellings of the very poor have an air of neatness and thrift, as if the occupants had seen better days, or been born for a higher station.