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Painters And Artists
( Originally Published 1955 )
Abbey, Edwin Austin (1852-1911). American historical painter in the traditional academic manner who worked in London for many years. He first became known for black-andwhite illustrations in Harper's Magazine. Admitted to the Royal Academy in 1898, Abbey recorded the coronation of Edward VII for the Buckingham Palace collection. He also did decorations in the Boston Public Library and the Pennsylvania State Capitol.
Agabiti Pietro Paolo (c.1470-1540). Italian, school of the Marches. A painter, sculptor and architect best represented by the many paintings and terracotta groups preserved in the towns where he worked: Sassoferrato, Jesi and Cupramontana. His style stems from Venice and shows an affinity with that of Lorenzo Lotto. His handling is dry and often weak in anatomical details but his color is rich and splendid.
Allters, Josef (1888-?). German-born American contemporary painter in the non-objective geometric tradition. Born in Westphalia, he studied in Berlin, Essen and Munich. From 1923-33 he taught at the Bauhaus (see) school of design until its closing by the Nazis. He came to the United States and was made chairman of the art department at Black Mountain College (1933-50). From there he went to Yale University as head of its Department of Design.
Alexander, John White (1856-1915). One of the leading academic painters in America at the turn of the century, he is best known for his portraits and murals, the most famous of the latter being the Evolution of the Book in the Library of Congress and the Crowning of Labor in the Carnegie Institute. After achieving success as an illustrator, he studied painting in a variety of places abroad and with a number of artists-Duveneck and Whistler among them. His art is eclectic, given to broad, fluid brushwork, competent but superficial.
Allori, Alessandro (1535-1607). An Italian Maniera (see) painter and slavish follower of Michelangelo and Bronzino (who brought him up after his father's death and whose name he adopted). His style is pompous, exaggerated and weak, but he had many commissions and decorated palaces and churches in and around Florence. He finished the decorations of Pontormo, del Sarto, and Franciabigio for the Medici Villa at Poggio a Caiano and did a copy of the Michelangelo Last Judgment for the Annunziata in Florence.
Allori, Cristofano (1577-1621). Florentine painter. son of Alessandro, who like his father took the name of Bronzino. He left his father's studio to study with Gregorio Pagani and was influenced by the coloristic reforms in Florentine painting which at the end of the sixteenth century were spearheaded by Cigoli, a pupil of Alessandro. He was a better and more famous painter than his father, a constant observer of nature, as his drawings attest, and one of the best draughtsmen and colorists of his time. Among his works are many excellent portraits.
Altdorfer, Albrecht (c. 1480-1538). German architect, painter, engraver and woodcutter. He was trained by a miniaturist and in 1511 made a trip to Austria, where he encountered the works of Pacher. Altdorfer's pictures are often of small format, and his style shows great freedom and rich invention. A vein of poetry and illusion gives them charm, and in his later style, the grandiosity of conception and the use of Renaissance architecture and detail never dull the interest of his storytelling or decoration.
Altichiero (c.1330-c.1395). Italian painter who worked in Verona for a number of years and was called to Padua about 1370, where his most important work is to be found. There he painted a series of "famous men" for F'rancesco Carrara, of which only a portrait of Petrarch remains (in the Palazzo del Capitano). His chief works in Padua are the frescoes in Sant' Antonio and in the Oratorio di San Giorgio. His style, influenced by Giotto's Paduan frescoes, shows more concern for painterly unity in composition than for the dramatic qualities emphasized by Giotto. In 1390 he was back in Verona where he painted frescoes in the church of St. Anastasia. Founder and greatest master of the early Verona school, he is probably the most significant painter of the fourteenth century in northern Italy.
Amalteo, Pomponio (1505-1588). Venetian painter, sculptor, architect. and engraver, pupil and son-in-law of Pordenone, who imitated his master but without the latter's power or originality. He worked almost entirely in the Friuli and in Treviso. His frescoes are superior to his easel paintings and the outstanding work of his career is the choir decoration completed in 1535 for Sta. Maria de' Battuti in S. Vito.
Amberger, Christoph (c.1500-1561). German painter. He was the pupil of Burgkmair, whom he succeeded as the most important painter in Augsburg. As a young man Amberger went, like most of his contemporaries, to study art in Italy. He was deeply influenced by Titian and the broad monumentality and classic beauty of such paintings as the altar of the Virgin in the Cathedral at Augsburg are directly traceable to the deep impression made on him by the work of the famous Venetian painter. Amberger is chiefly known for his portraits, which also reflect in their dignity and strength the Italian prototypes that he had admired. The decorative paintings with which he adorned the facades of houses in Augsburg have long since perished.
Ambrogio da Predis (c.1450-c.1506). Italian painter, originally from the school of Vincenzo Foppa, he was the oldest of the Milanese followers of Leonardo da Vinci and collaborated with Leonardo during the latter's first stay in Milan. He worked on the London version of Leonardo's Madonna of the Rocks, and the lute-playing angels are considered his work. Two portraits, one in London and the other in Vienna, are his important authentic works.
Andrea da Firenze (Andrea Bonaiuti) (active 1343-1377). Florentine painter whose major work, frescoes (commissioned 1365) in the Spanish Chapel of Santa Maria Novella, is based on a religious treatise, Passavanti's Mirror of Penitence, and includes scenes from the life of St. Peter Martyr, a Crucifixion, and St. Thomas in Glory, as well as the allegorical Way to Salvation. His frescoes (1377) in the Campo Santo, Pisa, illustrating the life of St. Ranier, are preserved in spite of the great damage to the Campo Santo in World War II. Andrea is the most strongly Sienese of the post-Giotto generation in Florence, deriving elements from the Lorenzetti and Simone Martini. He is particularly noted for his skill in composing large areas of undivided wall space, a development of the anti-Giottesque tendency that marked his generation.
Andrea da Murano (active 1462-1507). This Venetian painter received his training under his brother Hieronymus, whose shop furnished woodcarving and painting for church use. He collaborated with Bartolommeo Vivarini and was influenced by him. His most important extant work is the high altar of Sta. Maria in Trebaseleghe, which was begun in 1484 and for which he received payment in 1507. His style is characterized by conventional draughtsmanship and a rather hard manner.
Andrea di Niccolo di Giaeomo (c. 1440-after 1514). Sienese painter who was a pupil of Matteo di Giovanni Bartoli and collaborated with Giovanni di Paolo in 1470. He executed numerous commissions for churches and confraternities in and around Siena. His major extant work is an altarpiece of the Madonna and Child with St. Roche and St. Sebastian. His art, based on that of his teacher and on the works of Neroccio di Landi and Benvenuto di Giovanni, is distinguished by a dark and greenish tonality.
Antonio da Ferrara (Antonio di Guido Alberti) (1390/1400-1449). Born in Ferrara but must have moved at an early age to Urbino, since his art is wholly Umbrian in character and is based on the style of Gentile da Fabriano. He may have been a pupil of the painter Matteo Gennari, whose sister he married. Signed frescoes by him are preserved in a chapel near Pesaro, and an altarpiece (1439) is in the Urbino gallery. His style is characterized by a certain harshness and vigor; it influenced later Ferrarese painters, including Tura and Cossa.
Arenal, Luis (1909- ). Mexican easel painter, lithographer and muralist; member, Popular Graphic Workshop. He has studied and worked on murals with Siqueiros, especially those at the new University City in Mexico. He has exhibited in the United States. His frescoes, influenced by Siqueiros' dynamic realism, may be seen in Bellevue Hospital, New York, and in the Governor's Palace of Guerrero, Mexico.
Aretusi, Pellegrino (called Munari) (active 1483, died 1523). Italian painter, school of Modena. He was locally trained but about 1510 was drawn to Rome by the fame of Raphael, whose assistant he became in the decoration of the Vatican Loggie. He also worked on decorations (now lost) in various Roman churches. Back in Modena after Raphael's death (1520) he painted altarpieces. His early work is characterized by fine detail, lively color and distinctive figure types. Later his art became a weak imitation of the High Renaissance style of Raphael.
Arpino II Cavaliere d' (Giuseppe Cesari) (c.1560-1640). Italian Maniera (see) painter, one of the most famous artists of his day. His retarded style stood in opposition to the newer eclecticism of the Carracci and the naturalism of Caravaggio, but he still received great commissions and was internationally respected. He worked in turn for Popes Gregory XIII, Clement VIII, Paul V, and Urban VIII, and in France for Henry IV, Louis XIII, and Cardinal Richelieu. Born either in Rome or Arpino, he studied first with his' father, and as a child prodigy decorated a fagade in Rome at the age of thirteen. From that point on he followed an unbroken road to honor and wealth, covering endless walls with mannered and complex decorations.
Avanzo, Jaeopo (active last quarter of 14th century) Veronese artist formerly confused with Jacopo Avanzi da Bologna and with a Jacopo da Verona who worked in Padua. Avanzo's signature is found in the fresco decoration of the Oratory of St. George, Padua, where he collaborated with Altichiero. The impressive narrative style of the two painters, deriving from Giotto, is so similar that their hands in this large and important decoration have not been satisfactorily distinguished.
Avercamp, Hendrick (1585-1634). Dutch painter. He studied with Pieter Isaacsz. and in his early works reveals the influence of Coninxloo and Pieter Brueghel the Elder. He specialized in winter scenes, in which his sprightly, wellpainted little figures combine with fresh color to create entertaining and original effects.
Avery, Milton (1893-?). Contemporary American painter in the tradition of Matisse and Fauvism (see). Born in Altmar, N.Y., he studied at the Connecticut League of Art Students. His art is characterized by sensitive drawing, distorting but not destroying reality, and subtle relationship of color applied thinly in large areas.