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VENICE (Italy) PORCELAIN: A manufactory of both hard- and softpaste porcelain was located here as early as 1719 and continued until 1742. The production was of excellent quality and the decoration was in pure Italian style. Another factory was established in 1765 where porcelain of great artistic merit was produced until it was closed in 1812.
VIENNA (Austria) PORCELAIN: This ware is renowned for the raised gold ornamentation, done usually on a body of deep crimson or blue. The body was of hard paste of excellent quality and the glaze was good. The decoration consists chiefly of the copies of famous paintings, although flowers, fruit, figures and landscapes were also used. The factory was established in 1718 and workmen from Meissen were employed. In 1744 it became an imperial institution, remaining under State control until 1864, when it was discontinued.
VINCENNES (France) PORCELAIN: The most important of the early softpaste factories in France, and apart from the excellence of its product, it is celebrated for being the parent of the great Royal Sevres factory, through the interest of the King in the enterprise. The products of Vincennes from 1745 to 1756, when the factory was merged with that of Sevres, are highly prized by collectors. The articles made were varied and included tableware and other household articles of utility and many elaborate pieces upon which special efforts were bestowed. Among these last was the fashioning of porcelain flowers, which were immensely popular with the nobility.
In 1753, the King sanctioned the use of the royal cipher (the L's interlaced) which had already been adopted as a mark. The decoration of the earlier pieces was chiefly copied from Oriental designs. After removal to Sevres, the factory at Vincennes was used for several years for making hard-paste porcelain, which product must not be confounded with the earlier soft-paste porcelain.