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UNDER-GLAZE: Decoration, printed or painted, done before the glaze is applied and the piece fired. This is a more difficult process than over-glaze (q.v.), because the high temperature required for the glaze spoils almost all colors excepting cobalt blue, and was first attempted in England about 1750.
UNION PORCELAIN WORKS: Established in 1864 at Greenpoint, Long Island, by Thomas C. Smith. The porcelain made was composed of kaolin, quartz and feldspar mix, and the glaze was applied by the same process used at Sevres, Meissen and other foreign factories. Mr. Smith was probably the first potter in this country to apply decoration on hard porcelain by the under' glaze method. He also used later the over-glaze method, in order to obtain a greater variety of coloring. The work exhibits a high degree of excellence.
UNITED STATES POTTERY Co.: (Bennington, Vermont) See BENNINGTON.
URBINO (Italy) WARE: The majolica produced here was at its best about 1530'1540 and maintained its excellence for about thirty years. The style of decoration is that known as "Raffaelesque" with scrolls and grotesque ornament forming the ground work and medallions of cupids or mythological subjects in the center. Among its products were plaques, vases and drug pots, sometimes with serpentine handles and mask spouts. The large plaques are frequently decorated with Biblical or historical subjects.