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TEA CADDIES: A bottle-shaped receptacle of rectangular, circular or other form, for holding tea leaves. Also called canister.
THROWING: The art of fashioning shapes on the potter's wheel (q.v.). It is the oldest method of pottery-making employed by civilized man and is still in use in many potteries.
THROWING WHEEL: This is an improvement over the old potter's wheel and is composed of a plate or disk, which is revolved by means of a belt which passes around two spindles and extends to a large vertical fly wheel operated by a crank in the hands of a second person. The revolving plate is often ten or more feet from the crank wheel.
TILES: The earliest attempts at ceramic art included enameled tiles. Tiles of ancient Roman origin and of the Moors are splendid specimens of this kind of decoration. Many so-called encaustic tiles followed by inlaid tiles with lead glaze were made in medieval times in the monasteries in England. Old delft tiles are other good examples. Encaustic and other tiles were made in the 19th century at Minton's and other potteries in England.
In our country the manufacture of encaustic tiles has grown to be a large industry. Some of the best work has been done by the American Encaustic Tile Co., of Zanesville, Ohio, the Beaver Falls Art Tile Co., of Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania, and the Low Art Tile Co., of Chelsea, Massachusetts. The first tiles produced in this country are said to have been made by Abraham Miller in Philadelphia in 1845.
TIN-ENAMELED POTTERY: Ware covered with a heavy, opaque, putty-like white enamel, distinguished from glaze which is transparent or translucent. Decorations of tin-enameled pottery must be painted on or in the dense white enamel. Tin enamel is a composition of glass and oxide of lead with a certain portion of oxide of tin which produces the white, opaque effect. Old delft is an example of this stanniferous pottery.
TOBY JUG: The origin of the Toby jug is uncertain. The early Whieldons were probably produced before 1759. The Toby Pllilpot Jug by Ralph Wood, Sr., was probably the original of a type afterwards imitated by all the potters. Genuine old Tobies always have hallow legs and feet and this is generally apparent. Toby jugs are among the most interesting of early ceramic productions.
TOFT WARE: Slip-decorated pottery made by Ralph and Thomas Toft in Staffordshire in the latter half of the 17th century. The material of this ware was usually a coarse reddish clay and the decorating is done in a rather crude manner. The glaze was applied before the ware was fired, but after the slip was placed on it, and this gave to the piece a rich yellow tone. This ware marks a distinct advancement in the history of English potting, and has given the general name of Toft ware to all slip-decorated pottery since. Much of it is in imitation of real "Toft Ware." Thomas Toft was one of the really great English potters.
TORKSEY PORCELAIN: The ware made at Torksey in Lincolnshire was from an unsuccessful pottery conducted by William Billingsley from 1803 to 1808. It bore no mark and is almost impossible to identify.
TORTOISE-SHELL WARE: This ware, made famous by Thomas Whieldon, was made by several Staffordshire potters, but it is doubtful if any of them produced anything quite as fine as Whieldon. The tortoise-shell effect was obtained by covering the body of light color with oxides put on with a sponge.
TOURNAI PORCELAIN: A soft-paste porcelain was made here in a factory established about 1750. The salmon scale was a favorite form of decoration.
TRANSFER-PRINTING: It is claimed that this method of dec oration on ware by means of paper was discovered by Sadler and Green at Liverpool about 1750. The process consists of first engraving the design on copper, inking the plate and transferring the design to specially prepared paper, and while the ink is still wet the paper is carefully laid on the piece to be decorated and the design transfers itself to the ware. It is used on both under-glaze and over-glaze ware, and this invention revolutionized the decoration of all earthenware products, as well as glass, and it helped to make English pottery famous throughout the civilized world. In general, the blue-printer strove to be decorative, representing scenery and designs of an oriental nature. Blueprint-ing was essentially a Staffordshire process. Black and white may be said to depict events and chronicle popular sentiment. This was characteristic of Liverpool ware.
TRENT TILE CO.: At Trenton, New Jersey, made a specialty of alto-relievo tiles, treated by a sand-blast process after glazing. The effect is a soft, satin-like finish, very pleasing to the eye. They also inade glazed and enameled varieties in several sizes. In 1886 `William Gallimore, an English artist Inodeler, joined the company, and until his death in 1891 all of the modeling was his work. His style is vigorous and versatile.
TRENTON POTTERIES CO.: At Trenton, New Jersey, is one of the largest concerns in the industry in this country. It is a combination of several older companies.
TUCKER AND HEMPHILL PORCELAIN WORKS: See CHINA, American.
TUDOR JUGS: A class of Elizabethan ware, five or six inches in height, of brown and blue mottled surface with a tin glaze. They are exceedingly rare and valuable and some of them are mounted with silver. A great deal of mystery surrounds their origin, but they are supposed to be of English make.
TURNING: Finishing of pottery by lathe work. The Elers Brothers made a very hard, red pottery which, by turning in the lathe, was much thinner than if done on the potter's wheel.
TYG, TIG: A slip-decorated mug of red ware of the 17th century, made in various sizes with several single or double loop handles. A posset-cup. They were popular for use at Christmas Eve. When made with two handles and with a cover, they were called posset-pots. It is thought that the tyg originated in Staffordshire.