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OPAQUE CHINA: See SEMI-CHINA.
ORIENTAL LOWESTOFT: See LOWESTOFT.
ORLEANS (France) PORCELAIN: In 1753, a factory for the manufacture of soft-paste porcelain was established here. The body was very translucent, white in color and of beautiful quality. In 1770, following the fashion of other French factories, the soft paste was discontinued for the more durable, but less beautiful hard paste. The ground color of this porcelain is nearly always white and the decoration carefully painted. It may readily be taken for late Sevres. The factory was closed early in the 19th century.
ORVIETO WARE: A pottery at Orvieto, Italy, in the early decades of the 15th century pro duced a grey earthenware, lightly painted in purple or green with a transparent lead glaze, which preceded and prepared the way for majolica (q.v.).
OVEN: There are three principal ovens: the biscuit oven, which is to harden the piece; the "glost" oven for firing the glaze and the under-glaze decoration; and the enamel oven, called kiln, for fixing the over-glaze decoration. For jasper ware or unglazed stoneware, etc., the biscuit state is the final one. The ware to be fired is placed in "saggers" (q.v.) before going to the oven. See GLOST OVEN and KILN.
OVER-GLAZE: The term applies to painted or printed decoration on pottery, done after the glaze has been applied and fired. The over-glaze is then fired at a lesser heat than is required for the glaze, to fix tht colors.