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NANTGARW PORCELAIN: A soft-paste porcelain, containing a considerable portion of bone ash, produced at Nantgarw, Wales, from 1813 to 1822, of a beautiful white tint and clear glaze. It was painted with tinted grounds in many different colors and with birds and flowers in their natural colors. The factory was started byWilliam Billingsley, the flower painter, who worked successively at Derby, Worcester, Pinxton, Nantgarw, Swansea and Coalport, which helps to explain why the decorations of different factories so closely resemble each other. Nantgarw porcelain is highly translucent, but it was apt to collapse in the kiln, making it costly to produce. A great deal of spurious Nantgarw china is to be found. Any mark not impressed in the paste should be avoided.
NAPLES PORCELAIN: A soft-paste porcelain was made here about 1736. See CAPO DI MONTE.
NASHUA (New Hampshire) POTTERY: Established by Martin Krafts in 1838 and continued for six years. Salt-glazed stoneware in the form of jugs and jars with blue decoration was made there.
NEWCASTLE WARE: At Newcastle-on-Tyne from about 1777 to 1825 were made the familiar mugs and jugs with ships in black transfer decoration and with verses appropriate for the sailors for whom they were made. One of the potteries also made blue-printed ware equal to the best Staffordshire. Newcastle ware and Sunderland ware (q.v.) are frequently classed together. Numerous modern potteries carry on the Newcastle tradition.
NEW ENGLAND POTTERY: The earlier New England earthenware, though humble and crude, was quaint and not lacking in decorative qualities. Made from local clay, by local potters, for local use, it had that handmade look that appeals to us. No pottery of consequence was made here until after the middle of the 18th century, and the most significant part of the history of American ceramics lies in the early 19th century.
Two kinds of earthenware were produced in New England, red ware first, then stoneware. The former was lead glazed and decorated, more or less, in colored slip. The stoneware was grey in body and harder than the red ware. Decoration and forms were all English in type. Connecticut, where stoneware only was produced, seems to have led in number and output of potteries. Peabody, Massachusetts, became a center of the industry. Then, of course, Bennington, Vermont (q.v.) takes a leading place.
A terra-cotta works started in Weston, Massachusetts, by A. H. Hews about 1765, produced bear pots, milk pans, jugs and other red earthenware. None of the early earthenware bore a distinguishing mark, so that it is extremely difficult to identify any particular potter. See POTTERY.
NEW ENGLAND POTTERY COMPANY: Started in 1854 at Cambridge, Massachusetts, making Rockingham and yellow ware. In 1875 L. W. Clark assumed control and began making creamcolored and white granite ware. The pottery also made, later, porcelain of admirable quality and style and decorated in mazarine blue and old ivory.
NEW GENEVA (Pennsylvania) POTTERY: Established in 1849 and continued for about fifty years. Grey stoneware with blue decoration for household purposes was made there. A ridged collar was characteristic of this ware. See GREENSBORO.
NEW HALL PORCELAIN: A hard-paste milk-white porcelain, very translucent, was made at this factory at Shelton in Staffordshire, by a group of Staffordshire potters who bought the patent rights of Richard Champion when he closed the Bristol works in 1781. Only useful ware, generally tea services, was made and the decoration was mostly floral with occasional figure subjects. Their pink lustre tea sets are the triumph of the lustre potters' art. The factory was started about 1780 and closed in 1825.
NEW YORK POTTERY: The earliest potteries in New York were those of William Crolius and John Remmey, both of these located on Manhattan Island just north of the present City Hall. The product of these potteries was stoneware, consisting chiefly of jugs, jars, pots and other similar household ware. See CROLIUS WARE AND REMMEY WARE.
NORTON STONEWARE CO.: See BENNINGTON.
NORWICH (Connecticut) POTTERY: Founded about 1836 by Sidney Risley, who continued to operate the pottery until his death in 1875. Stoneware crocks, pitchers, jugs and bottles were the principal products. In later years some glazed and decorated ware was added to the lines. The pottery was discontinued in 1895.
NOTTINGHAM WARE: English stoneware late 17th to early 19th century. Earliest dated piece 1700. The color of the body is a warm, reddishbrown and the salt-glaze is decidedly lustrous in appearance. It is smoother in its surface than old Staffordshire, and it is a species of stoneware highly regarded. What are known as "bear" jugs were a feature of Nottingham stoneware, although not peculiar to that pottery.
NUREMBERG WARE: Nuremberg is said to have been the pioneer in the manufacture of majolica in Germany. Large tiles of dark coppergreen with subjects in relief, used for the earthenware stoves in vogue early in the 16th century, were produced there. From that time to the present day there have been many potteries at Nuremberg.
NYMPHENBURG PORCELAIN: This porcelain was made at a factory in Bavaria established in 1747. The work of Bustelli, a modeler from 1754 to 1763, was exceedingly good. The products of this factory were of great beauty and they are highly prized at the present time.