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JACKFIELD WARE: The known history of this factory located in Shropshire, on the Severn River, begins in 1713, although potting in this district was done as early as in the 16th century. Jackfield was noted for its black ware, made of red clay and covered with a lustrous black glaze and ornamented with oil colors or gilt. Its best work was done between 1760 and 1772 under Maurice Thursfield, son of the founder Richard Thursfield. In 1780 the works were sold and removed to Coalport.
JAPANESE PORCELAIN: See PORCELAIN, Japanese.
JAPANESE POTTERY: See POTTERY, Japanese.
JASPER WARE: This fine, hard, unglazed white bisque made by Wedgwood and other potters was perfected about 1775. It was made in various surface colors introduced about 1777, known as dip jasper, and in blue, colored clear through, called solid jasper, and white bas-relief was used in combination with the different colors. Jasper was used for making vases, medallions, plaques and many other articles. The points which mark excellence in the eyes of the collector are the smoothness and color of the background, the sharpness and translucency of the ornament, and the undercutting in which certain parts are relieved by cutting while the clay is soft.
JERSEY CITY POTTERY: Established in 1825 as the Jersey Porcelain and Earthenware Co. In 1833 the name was changed to the American Pottery Manufacturing Co., and again about twenty years later to the Jersey City Pottery. Various kinds of pottery were made there of a buff or creamcolored body of excellent quality. For the first time in America the English method of transfer-printing in decoration was adopted before 1840. Many of the best potters of the old school in this country learned their trade at this factory. Although earthenware was the chief product, porcelain was produced to some extent. The factory was discontinued in 1892.
JIGGER: A machine used in potteries in making circular and swelled vessels such as jars, jugs, crocks, etc. It carries a revolving mold, in which the clay is shaped in a "former."
JOLLY: A contrivance somewhat similar to a jigger for making flat ware, consisting of a revolving disk or plate on which the mold is placed.
JUGS: An earthenware vessel with handle, used to carry liquids. The earlier jugs of the Staffordshire potters were nearly all molded. The Liverpool jug (q.v.) is that best known to collectors. The early pitchers were usually called jugs.