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LAMBETA WARE: The earliest work identified as Lambeth is of about the middle of the 17th century. The earliest dated known example is 1634. It has the general characteristics of Holland delftware with a thick opaque white enamel of a pinkish tinge on which is painted, generally in blue, the decoration. The painting is inferior to that on the Dutch delft. At the same time the delft of Lambeth is regarded as the best produced in England. At one time there were twenty potteries here active in making delftware, and drug jars and pots are among some of the most important pieces which have survived. See DOULTON WARE.
LANE DELPH WARE: See MASON WARE.
LANE END: In Staffordshire. At this place, now known as Longton, there have been many manufactories of pottery and porcelain, some of which are still in existence. John Turner was one of the best known and some of his work rivaled that of Wedgwood.
LEAD GLAZE: The earliest form used in England was the so-called "galena" glaze consisting of sulfide of lead in powder form dusted on the ware. About 1750, liquid lead, composed of ground flint and white lead into which the body was dipped, was first used. Body and glaze were then fired together, giving an appearance as though covered with a heavy coating of varnish.
LEEDS WARE: Although known to have been in operation in 1760, the best period of Leeds was from 1783 to 1800, when under the operation of Hartley Greens & Co. The ware then produced is noted for its lightness in weight, the fine finish, the peculiar color of the body and especially for the light green tinge in the glaze. Enameled salt-glaze ware preceded its cream ware, which rivaled the best production of Wedgwood. A characteristic feature of Leeds ware is the varied use of pierced work in the rims of plates, trays and other dishes. Each perforation of this work is done separately by hand and the edges are sharp and clean-cut. Transfer-printing in red, black, purple and lustre was also used in decoration.
LIMOGES (France) ENAMELS: The earliest of these famous enamels are of the Champleve kind and are mostly ecclesiastical pieces. Examples of this work are very rare, although they may be seen in our leading museums. The painted enamels produced at the end of the 15th and during the 16th century are of a very high order of merit. The painting was done by some of the lead ing artists of the period. It is brilliant in color and the composition is strong. The Musee du Louvre and the Cluny Museum in Paris, the British Museum in London, The Metropolitan Museum in New York, and the Walters Art Gallery in Baltimore possess beautiful examples of the best of this work.
LIMOGES (France) PORCELAIN: Hard-paste porcelain was made here in 1783. The table services which were the chief production have an ivory-tinted body and decoration in rather dull colors of sprays of flowers. In 1840 David Haviland started a factory and a large trade was built up, especially for export to this country. Limoges is, at the present time, the center of a district containing several important porcelain factories.
LINTHORPE ART POTTERY: Made at a pottery in Nliddlesbrough, England, established in 1880 and continuing for about twenty years. The ware in great variety was made from common brick clay and it is noted for the beauty of its form, color and the brilliance of its glazes. In this respect it is only matched by the splendid wares of the East. Low-toned reds, mottled olives and browns, yellows of great variety of tone are found in this ware.
LIVERPOOL JUGS: Jugs made at Liverpool in the 18th century in a great variety of sizes, usually cylindrical in shape and decorated with a transfer design in black and white, often bearing the likeness of some prominent man or of a ship, sometimes both. Many American subjects are depicted upon them in the later period of their manufacture.
LIVERPOOL PORCELAIN: Richard Chaffers, William Reid and some other Liverpool potters made a soft-paste porcelain about rhe middle of the 18th century. But little is known of the history of those enterprises and the known specimens are very few. Some of these were decorated with cobalt blue on a white ground with copies of Oriental subjects. There are also existing examples of transfer-printing in brown and other colors.
LIVERPOOL WARE: Early in the 18th century, delft dishes decorated in the Chinese style were the principal trade of the city. It is characterized by a bluish tone of the enamel, which often contains small pinholes. The three principal potteries were those of Alderman Shaw, Seth Pennington and Zachariah Barnes. Astbury salt-glaze (q.v.), Whieldon (q.v.) and cream ware were subsequently made, the latter largely decorated with transfer-printing in black and white, a process perfected by John Sadler of Liverpool and much employed there. Potteries at Staffordshire and other places sent pottery to Liverpool for printing. The so-called Liverpool jug or pitcher is one of the most interesting pieces of this ware. See HERCULANEUM.
LONGPORT: In Staffordshire had, and has, many manufactories of both pottery and porcelain. Stoneware, salt-glaze and cream ware, also printed ware were produced here. Of all the factories that of John Davenport and his successors, perhaps, was most prominent. (See DAVENPORT WARE.) At the St. Mary's Works, Moore Brothers produced porcelain rivaling in color and enameling the finest Chinese ware.
LONGTON HALL PORCELAIN: Near Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, William Littler, an important figure in the history of English ceramics, who previously had been successful in the manufacture of salt-glaze ware, started making salt-glazed porcelain in 1752, the first Staffordshire porcelain. This porcelain is the only one with a saltglaze. Two different kinds of paste were used, the first is highly translucent and glossy, like very early Bow, and later the paste is notably heavy with a rather greyish glaze. The under-glaze blue of this ware is its most characteristic feature. No recognized mark is known to have been used at Longton Hall and because of the scarcity of identified pieces, the prices are higher than its artistic merit would warrant. Table service ware was the principal production although some figure pieces were also made. About 1759, William Duesbury purchased the plant and closed it.
LOW ART TILE CO.: John G. Low, an art student who had studied in Paris, established a tile factory at Chelsea, Massachusetts, in 1877, and in little more than a year afterwards won a gold medal, over all the manufacturers in England, at an exhibition in Crewe, England. The product of this company is characterized by a marked originality both in style and designs, which has caused it to be extensively imitated at home and abroad. An interesting collection of these tiles is on public view at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
LOWESBY WARE: This pottery in Leicestershire usually made small ware of red terra cotta, coated with dull black, upon which the design was painted in bright enamel colors. The decoration was probably done in London.
LOWESTOFT PORCELAIN: Lowestoft is a small town on the southeast coast of England. Here, in 1757 a factory for making porcelain was established which continued in operation for nearly fifty years. The factory was small; the number of workmen at no time exceeded seventy. The actual Lowestoft productions were chiefly tableware and small objects, sometimes called trifles. It was, at first, decorated mostly after Chinese patterns with blue and white under the glaze, which was of a bluish-green tinge. After 1770 the painting was usually over the glaze. Although the ware resembles old Bow and Worcester, it is inferior in quality to those early porcelains.
All the marked and dated pieces, definitely known as Lowestoft, in English collections are marked as part of the blue and white ornamentation or with numerals, and there are no Lowestoft pieces anywhere with makers' marks and stamps. All are of soft-paste porcelain. After the works were closed in 1803, Robert Allen bought undecorated china from other factories and decorated it at Lowestoft in the Lowestoft manner and continued that work for about thirty years. Because so-called Lowestoft has been, is now, and probably will continue to be cherished by collectors of porcelain and for the reason that there has been so much controversy and confusion with regard to its provenance, the subject cannot be dismissed in a brief sentence or two. The origin of the controversy may be laid to ChafFers, who, in the first edition of Marks and Monograms in 1863, definitely claimed as Lowestoft the hard-paste porcelain table services which had been made to order for English families in the 18th century. It was not until more than thirty years afterwards, that his opinion was disputed.
In the meantime the assertion had been accepted as a fact, and has since been difficult to overcome. The argument has been going on ever since, supported by the fact that all of the so-called Lowestoft in England and here is of hard-paste porcelain, and in spite of the fact that no one has yet proved that hard-paste porcelain was ever made at Lowestoft. Those who deny the Lowestoft origin of this ware assert confidently that it was all made in China and exported from there to England at first, and later to this country, supported in their claims by copies of orders to Chinese manufacturers and invoices covering such orders, still in existence. One writer claims that there is so much of the so-called Lowestoft in existence in England and in this country, even now, that no factory in England was large enough in those days to have produced all of it, making allowance for what must in the meantime have been destroyed.
The Chinese Lowestoft was made at Ching-te-Chen, and sent to Canton, a distance of nearly 450 miles, where it received its decoration by enamelers who catered to the European and American markets. The decoration on most of the early Lowestoft followed Chinese patterns.
The ware consisted chiefly of table services, much of it decorated with designs sent with the orders, some of it in characteristic Chinese manner. The first of this china arrived in America in 1784, although shipments to England and to other European countries were made much earlier.
LUDWIGSBURG PORCELAIN: A factory was started in Wurttemberg in 1758 and Ringler, formerly of Vienna, became the active head and remained here for forty years. Well modeled figures and tableware, all finely decorated, were produced. The factory was closed in 1824. This ware is also known as Kronenberg.
LUSTRE WARE: This well-known ware was made at all of the principal potteries in Staffordshire and elsewhere. It is not exactly known when this mode of decoration was first invented. It was introduced into Spain by the Moors in the 7th century, and became an established industry extending into the island of Majorca off the coast of Spain, thence into Italy and France. The ancient lustre pieces were ornamented, not covered, by the lustre as are specimens of more modern times. The composition of the pigment and of the enamel was long carefully guarded. English lustre ware, fine as some of it is, holds no comparison with the old Spanish and Italian wares. Lustrous effects are produced on pottery or porcelain by the application of an exceedingly thin glaze of metal oxides. Lustre ware of the English potteries may be divided into the following classes:
Canary Lustre. This is a ground shade, occasionally used with silver resist.
Copper or Bronze Lustre. The early brown copper lustre was first made about 1770 in Staffordshire, and was improved by Spode's- factory, also in Staffordshire. The shade of copper lustre differs considerably, and it was made both plain and undecorated, then in combination with painted designs. It became very popular.
Gold Lustre was probably invented by Josiah Wedgwood about 1792. The effect varies from pink to purple and it was often used as a decoration around the rim of pottery. The term "pink" lustre includes rather generally all types of china that are decorated with any amount of precipitated rose-gold. It was mainly used to ornament tea sets, although it was employed in decorating other wares. This particular kind of lustre ware was manufactured only in England. The Sunderland and New Hall potteries produced the best of this ware, and much of it was made for the American trade.
Silver Lustre was first made in 1791 by applying a solution of platinum chloride, which is subsequently reduced to a metallic deposit on the surface of the pottery. Early ware was lustred inside and outside, but later the lustre was applied only to the outside. Silver lustre "resist" comes into this second period. This ware was made as an imitation of silver ware, and the models follow the designs of the silversmith frequently. The usual ground shade is white, but occasionally canary, buff or blue was the color used.
Silver lustre ranks first in value, followed by the pink lustre of Sunderland. Lustre ware of Leeds and Wedgwood is also highly regarded. The term "self ground" refers to pieces on which the whole or greater part of the surface is covered with the lustre. "Resist" is a term applying to the pattern painted on the surface of the ware in a medium easily soluble in water, such as glycerine. The whole is lustred over and when dry the piece is washed in water, the painted pattern washes off, leaving the pattern on the lustred ground. The ware is then fired to complete the process. "Resist" lustre is considered by many connoisseurs the most artistic type of this class of ware, although this may be disputed, as a matter of taste.
LYNDEBORO POTTERY: A pottery at Lyndeboro, New Hampshire, founded by Peter Clark in 1775 and continued after his death by his sons. The product was jugs, jars and pots for various purposes. The body was red and the glaze usually of a dark brown color. Specimens of this pottery are rare.