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GALENA: Sulfide of lead. In powdered form it was dusted on the ware and liquefied by the firing. See LEAD GLAZE.
GALLIPOT: A small earthenware Jar. These are sometimes found of old delft, made for apothecary's use, about eight inches in height, round body, decorated in blue and usually with a spout and handle.
GERMAN PORCELAIN: See PORCELAIN, German.
GERMAN POTTERY: See POTTERY, German.
GERMAN STONEWARE: A ware of the Renaissance period, fired at a temperature so high as to vitrify the body and render it impervious to liquids, without a coating of glaze. The body was relatively coarse, the forms roughly "thrown" and the surface covered with molded pictorial ornament. Some of the earliest of this stoneware is ascribed to Cologne, where the so-called Bellarlnine (q.v.) or greybeard jugs are thought to have originated. Many pieces of this stoneware found their way into England early in the 16th century and were imitated in England by John Dwight at Fulham (q.v.). German stoneware was brought into this country by the German settlers in Pennsylvania in the 18th century. See COLOGNE STONEWARE.
GILDING: The early method was to apply the gold by oil "sizing" without firing, which was liable to be rubbed off. This process was improved late in the 18th century by grinding the gold leaf with honey, which was painted on the ware and then "fixed" with a gentle firing. Later, this method was replaced with the present mercury process, which allows the gilding to be burnished.
GINORI PORCELAIN: See DOCCIA.
GLAZE: The coating applied to earthenware and porcelain when in its biscuit stage, usually composed of elements similar to those of glass. Liquid glaze into which the piece is dipped was introduced in 1750. Hard glaze is colorless and thin and feels cold to the hands. Soft glaze is a white cream color and has a wet, sticky feeling. In the earlier days tin was used for the opaque glaze peculiar to delftware, called tin-enameled, and in England lead in powder form was sprinkled over the biscuit and then fired. See LEAD GLAZE, SALT-GLAZE and SMEAR GLAZE.
GLOST OVEN: The chamber in which pottery is placed for the purpose of firing the glaze. Saggers (q.v.) are used to protect the ware from the flames and gases of the oven. The heat of the earthenware biscuit oven ranges from 1200 to 1350 degrees centigrade, that of the china (porcelain) oven from 1300 to 1450 degrees. See OVEN.
GOLD LUSTRE: See LUSTRE WARE.
GRAFFITO: See SGRAFFIATO.
GREENPOINT (Long Island) POTTERY: Established in 1848 by Charles Cartlidge & Co., where a fine quality of decorated table china was produced, also portrait busts in biscuit porcelain. Factory was in operation only eight years.
GREENSBORO (Pennsylvania) POTTERY: Established early in the 19th century. It produced at first red ware, partially or wholly covered with brown or black slip. Later, a white clay was used for making a grey stoneware, with saltglaze, consisting of jars, jugs, pitchers and other household ware. The best of this ware is decorated with blue. This pottery continued work until near the close of the century. Another pottery known as the Eagle Pottery was also located at Greensboro for some time. See NEW GENEVA.
GREENWICH (Connecticut) POTTERY: Salt-glazed grey stoneware was made there by Abraham Mead, during the last half of the 18th century.
GREENWOOD POTTERY CO.: Of Trenton, New Jersey, was established in 1861 by Stephen Tams & Co., and incorporated in 1868. Mr. Tams was from Staffordshire, England, where he had learned the pottery business in all of its branches. This pottery made a specialty of vitrified and translucent china for hotel, steamship and railway uses. They also produced a thin china tableware of superior quality for domestic uses.
GRES DE FLANDRES: See COLOGNE STONEWARE.
GREYBEARD JUGS: See BELLARNIINE JUGS.
GRISAILLE: A method of painting in grey tints so as to represent a solid body in basrelief. The effect of relief is given by varying the shades.
GRUEBY FAIENCE CO.: Boston. Organized in 1897. The ware produced is regarded as one of the best made in this country, and it is highly regarded abroad. The forms are delightful, the decorations are of the simplest character in plain colors, and the glaze is soft and beautiful.
Gusslo (Italy) WARE: Majolica was made there in the 15th and 16th centuries and is at the present time very rare. The collector who desires to possess genuine specimens of this ware should use great care, as very clever imitations are offered. Gubbio ware was noted for its beautiful gold and ruby lustre and the artistic designs of Giorgio Andreoli. The old majolica manufacture was recently revived.