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CAMAIEU: A method of painting porcelain, usually in pink or green in deeper and lighter tones of a single color.
CAMBRIAN POTTERIES: The factory established at Swansea in Wales about 1750 produced saltglaze, cream and other wares. These wares are decorated with birds, butterflies and flowers and are well painted. Black basalt figures and vases and Etruscan ware, exceedingly well decorated, were also made at this factory, at a later period. Specimens marked Cambrian are rare. See SWANSEA WARE.
CANISTER: See TEA CADDY.
CANTA GALLI: A modern factory of faience, located at Florence, produces excellent reproductions of old Urbino majolica, lustred Gubbio ware and della Robbia.
CAPO DI MONTE PORCELAIN: This famous Italian factory was established near Naples in 1736 by Charles III and later transferred to Naples. The productions of this factory are very beautiful. The soft paste has a delicate texture and is soft in appearance, and the hard paste made early in the 19th century is generally of excellent quality. Old Capo di Monte is usually unmarked and it is hard to find genuine pieces. About the middle of the 19th century a factory was started on the site of the old one and reproductions are made there, but not equal to the original. A majolica ware is also made there at the present time, of good quality.
CASTEL DURANTE: An Italian center of majolica manufacture, 16th century.
CASTING: The method of making articles by means of pouring the clay, reduced by water to a "slip" condition, into plaster molds, which molds absorb the water. When the clay has dried or hardened to the right degree to hold its shape the mold is removed.
CASTLEFORD WARE: This factory, about twelve miles from Leeds in Yorkshire, was established about 1790 by David Dunderdale. Cream ware, black basalt and white porcelain tea services with ornaments in relief were made there. The ware is seldom found with any color on it. Castleford ware was to some extent made for the American trade, soon to be overwhelmed by Staffordshire ware. Factory was discontinued in 1820. Reopened later, a pottery is still in operation there.
CAUGHLEY (Or SALOPIAN) WARE: Earthenware made at this Shropshire factory, from 1750 to 1785, was finely modeled and equal to the finest work of the Staffordshire potters. It is, however, eclipsed by the soft-paste porcelain which Thomas Turner (who had previously been with the Worcester factory) began to make at Caughley in 1772. In 1780 he introduced the "willow pattern" designed by Thomas Min' ton, one of his decorators, from Oriental models. Whole dinner services were made with this design in under-glaze, blue-transfer print, and became very popular. Porcelain with under-glaze blue painted decoration was also one of their products, and Caughley, at that time, rivaled Worcester in production. The mark on the later productions is "Salopian" impressed in the paste. Salopian porcelain commonly gives a warm yellowish tone to transmitted light. The Caughley works were sold to Coalport (q.v.) about 1799 and in 1821 the works were demolished.
CAULDON POTTERY: Established at Cauldon Place, Stokeon-Trent, by Job Ridgway in 1802, and after 1830 and until 1855, carried on by his son John Ridgway. Table and toilet services in fine earthenware and excellent porcelain were made at this factory. Ridgway produced "The Beauties of America" series. In the last half of the 19th century, their porcelain work was of a high grade of excellence, and other products of the factory include almost every description of ceramics.
CELADON WARE: One of the earliest kinds of decorative pottery made by the Chinese, dating from the Sung dynasty, 960-1279, of a peculiar pale, watery-green color in the southern provinces, owing its origin to an attempt to copy the much-prized green jade, and brownish-green or dark Celadon in the northern provinces. The body is heavy and thick. Some of the ware is decorated under the glaze with floral designs or figures in relief, or stamped into the paste before the pieces were glazed and fired. The term was originally applied only to Oriental porcelain but some of the English and French factories have adopted it. Celadon green is but one color of a large group of Chinese self-colored porcelains, that is, where the color is applied with the glaze and subjected to but one firing. In other words the term is used to describe both a special class and a special color.
CERAMIC: Generic term, which comprises all objects made of clay, and derived from the Greek word Keramos.
CERAMIC ART COMPANY: Trenton, New Jersey, established in 1889. This factory has produced Belleek ware of exceptional beauty, both in design and decoration. Their carved ware in Belleek body, with decoration in porcelain bisque in relief, possesses a high order of artistic merit.
CERAMIC ART IN THE UNITED STATES: Up to 1876, the year of the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, comparatively little had been accomplished in this country of a really artistic nature, and the existence of a true ceramic art here may be said to have dated from that year, because greater progress has been made since that time than during the two centuries that preceded it. See CHELSEA KERAMIC ART WORKS, ROOKWOOD POTTERY, DEDHAM POTTERY, LOW ART TILE CO.
CHAFFERS PORCELAIN: Made at Liverpool by Richard Chaffers and Co. in 1756 and for several years thereafter. The better. known examples are characterized by a Worcesterlike body, painted in enamel colors with subjects of a Chinese character or with transfer-printed subjects. See LIVERPOOL PORCELAIN.
CHAMPLEVE: See ENAMEL.
CHANTILLY PORCELAIN: An important French factory making soft-paste porcelain, established about 1725 by the Prince de Conde. In the earlier period an opaque tin glaze was used and the forms and decoration were in the Oriental manner. The later productions have a clear lead glaze and consist largely of table services. Two of the workmen of Chantilly initiated the factory at Vincennes. The Chantilly factory was closed in 1789.
CHELSEA KERAMIC ART WORKS: This factory at Chelsea, Massachusetts, was started in 1866 by A. W. Robertson and produced in the succeeding years ware of a quality which entitles it to a prominent place in collector's interest. In 1867, Hugh C. Robertson, a brother who was to become so prominently identified with ceramics here and later at Dedham, j oined the company, and in 1872, his father, James Robertson, experienced Scotch potter.
A red bisque ware in imitation of antique Grecian terra cotta was produced in 1875, of a remarkably fine texture and smooth finish in the manner of the old originals, and in 1877 Chelsea faience attracted the attention of connoisseurs. It was characterized by floral decorations and a beautiful soft glaze. James Robertson died in 1880, and four years later Alexander went to California, leaving his brother, Hugh, to carry on alone.
The world owes a debt to the memory of Hugh Robertson for, at great personal sacrifice, he devoted the rest of his active life to an endeavor to rediscover many lost processes of ceramics. Experiments in reproducing the famous Chinese sang-de-boeuf were successful and vases were made with no other decoration than this wonderful surface color, which in the light glistens with all the varying hues of a sunset sky. Imitations of the Chinese crackle ware, with blue under-glaze decoration, were made which compare favorably with Oriental examples. Owing to lack of financial support by the buying public, the factory was closed in 1889 and in 1891 Hugh Robertson joined the Dedhaan Pottery Co. (q.v.).
CHELSEA (England) PORCELAIN: Factory here began making very softpaste porcelain about 1745, requiring all decoration to be done at one time as it could not withstand a second firing. The well-known "goat and bee" cream jugs are marked Chelsea 1745, a proof of the early date of this factory. In body, it is uneven, and the glaze on the earliest pieces is thick and was applied unevenly. The glaze of the later periods was much better. In decoration, Oriental, particularly Japanese, Dresden and Sevres patterns were closely followed. Every conceivable thing that could be made of porcelain was made at Chelsea under the direction of Nicholas Sprimont, who joined the company about 1750, and who later became owner of the works. He gave especial attention to the decoration of the product and remained at the head of the company until 1769.
In 1758 the composition of the paste was altered by the addition of calcined bone ash, and about 1759-60 we find the gorgeous costumes and handsome gilding, so rich and decorative. Its dark blue ground was never equaled by any other English factory, and the rich claret color was never produced anywhere else. Nearly all pieces of Chelsea porcelain exhibit stilt marks. The unique objects known as Chelsea "toys" are among the most valued of all Chelsea productions. In 1769 the factory was sold to William Duesbury, proprietor of the Derby factory (q.v.), and from 1770 to 1784, when the works were removed to Derby, is known as the Chelsea-Derby period, in which period some very beautiful products were made. A good specimen, by the softness of its paste, fine glaze and refined coloring may be said to resemble closely fine Sevres china. The marks are distinct.
CHESAPEAKE POTTERY: Of Baltimore, Maryland, was started in 1881 by D. F. Haynes & Co., and it has achieved a high reputation for the variety of excellent bodies and glazes it has produced, and still greater distinction by the beauty and originality of its designs, both in form and decoration. The most original and perhaps the most refined and beautiful was the so-called Severn ware, first made in 1885. It marked "an era in the history of American ceramics." It was a fine body of a subtle greyish-olive tint. Parian ware was also produced in the same year. In 1886, the manufacture of a fine semiporcelain in a great variety of articles, both useful and ornamental, was commenced.
CHINA: This term, derived, of course, from China, where porcelain was first made, is applied to porcelain of all classes, whether true porcelain of hard paste, or artificial porcelain of soft paste. Examples of the former are the Oriental porcelains, Meissen (Dresden), Plymouth, Bristol. Of the soft-paste porcelains are Worcester, Chelsea, Bow, Lowestoft and other English porcelains.
CHINA COLLECTING: "However small the collection, let it be good and perfect as far as it goes. Every specimen should be examined carefully as to the quality of its paste, modeling, shape, color and special characteristics as a specimen of its particular factory. It is a mistake for a collector to buy second and third-rate pieces because they are cheap. In the same way imperfect and restored specimens should be avoided, unless needed solely for decorative purposes. By taking every opportunity of seeing collections and making comparisons one's judgment and knowledge is improved. Beware of imitations"-LITCHFIELn. Since 1891, all pottery made in foreign countries has been subject to a law of the United States that requires importations to be stamped with the name of the country of their origin. This serves to identify some of the imitations of the early products. A fertile field for the collector is in gathering representative pieces of the wares of the American potteries, some of which equal those of the best European works.
CHINA STONE: (See PETUNTSE.) Known also as Cornish stone, used in conjunction with kaolin (q.v.) for porcelain and light-colored stoneware.
CHINESE LOWESTOFT: See LOWESTOFT.
CHINESE PORCELAIN: See PORCELAIN, Chinese.
CHINESE POTTERY: See POTTERY, Chinese.
CHURCH-GRESLEY PORCELAIN: This ware was made in Church Gresley in Derbyshire in a factory started by Sir Nigel Gresley in 1795. No authentic piece of this china is known. The factory was closed in 1808.
CINCINNATI ART POTTERY CO.: Established in 1880 by T. J. Wheatley & Co., its early under-glaze work is remarkable for beauty and originality of form and excellence in workmanship. The most distinctive of the products in style was the ivory-colored faience decorated with gold scroll work and flowers in natural colors. The pottery was discontinued after a few years of activity.
CLAY: The clay used in pottery is a plastic soil owing its origin to decomposition of various rocks, and consists chiefly of aluminum silicate. The blue clay used in this country for making stoneware, although very strong, will not stand intense heat unless mixed with other substances. Kaolin or china clay is used in making porcelain. It is a product of the decomposition of aluminous materials, especially feldspar, and it is white both before and after it is fired. This clay was early found in China, later in Saxony, and about 1765 in Cornwall, England. It is also found in several of the states in this country. It was by the discovery of this clay in Europe and here that the porcelains in imitation of those of China were made possible. Kaolin is not fusible, even at the highest temperatures to which the kiln can be brought.
CLEWS WARE: See JAMES CLEWS, PART G.
CLOBBERED WARE: Porcelain and pottery originally decorated in blue and later redecorated in other colors and refired.
CLOISONNE: See ENAMEL.
COALPORT PORCELAIN: Situated in Shropshire in the Severn Valley, the factory was established about 1780 by John Rose who had been an apprentice of Thomas Turner of Caughley. The chief production was tableware. The body was white and translucent, similar to the Caughley paste, and the glazing was excellent. Coalport at first made imitations of Dresden, Chelsea, Sevres and other wares, counterfeiting their marks with the avowed purpose, it is said, to deceive buyers. The gilding on these productions, however, was usually thin and burnished, quite unlike the dull, soft-looking gold on the originals. Later, Rose bought the Caughley works in 1799, the Swansea factory in 1820, and in 1828 Nantgarw and Jackfield also. At Coalport the marks of these various factories were used on the production, causing great confusion.
In 1819 William Billingsley, a decorator who previously had been employed by Derby, Worcester, Swansea and Nantgarw, joined Rose, and he died at Coalport in 1828. Specimens of later Coalport, not in imitation of other factories, are good in color and design and command a fair price. Under-glaze blueprinting and painting were the chief modes of decoration. The works are still in existence.
COBALT BLUE: See BLUE.
COPPER LUSTRE: See LUSTRE WARE.
COLOGNE STONEWARE Or GRES DE FLAN' DRES: A German stoneware of the 16th and 17th centuries, consisting of jugs, pots and tankards, with an incised or molded pattern, picked out in colors and then covered with salt-glaze. Many of these pieces have hinged covers of pewter and their decorative effect is pleasing. See GERMAN STONEWARE.
COMBING: An effect obtained by splashing slip of another color on the object to be decorated and then dragging a flexible toothed instrument over the surface.
COPELAND PORCELAIN: See SPODE.
COPENHAGEN PORCELAIN: The present factory was started in 1772, although a previous factory was in operation from 1756 to 1768, in which a soft-paste porcelain of good quality was made. Since 1779 the factory has been under Royal direction and very creditable work in hard-paste porcelain has been turned out. It ranks among the best produced in Europe and strikingly reflects the influence of Japanese ceramics, more so than any other of the European porcelains.
COREAN WARE: See KOREAN WARE.
CRACKLE: Crackle is produced by making the body of the piece of a mixture more sensitive to heat and expansion than the coating or glaze. When it occurs accidentally it is called crazing (q.v.). The Chinese made of it a regular form of decoration, producing crackle of various sizes, and they sometimes rubbed red coloring matter into the tiny cracks to make the crackle more marked.
CRAZING: The accidental fire-cracks in the glaze somewhat resembling crackle, due to the china's being withdrawn from the kiln before it is cooled, or by a defect in the firing.
CREAM WARE: The term applies to all light-colored English earthenware from about 1750 to the present time, although since the beginning of the 19th century the body has itself been white, due to the invention of so-called ironstone china by Mason. Cream ware was perfected by Wedgwood by the use of Cornwall clay and adopted as the standard earthenware of Staffordshire, until the perfection of the white body about fifty years later.
CROLIUS WARE: Stoneware made in New York, in the 18th century, at first by William Crolius and his partner, John Remmey. They eventually dissolved and each continued under his own name, both factories being near each other just north of the present City Hall. The business of William Crolius was carried on by several succeeding generations, and the regular product of this pottery was jugs, jars and dishes for table use. Some "specials" made were artistic in form, finish and decoration. The ware, in general, is lighter than that of Remmey.
CROUCH WARE: This ware of dense body made from a whitish clay and salt-glazed, in the late 17th and early 18th century, represents the transitional stage between the ordinary brown earthenware and the later drab or greyish-white examples.
CROWN DERBY: See DERBY PORCELAIN.
CROWN STAFFORDSHIRE PORCELAIN CO.: This company operates the Minerva Works at Fenton formerly occupied by Mason & Co., makers of the well-known ironstone china. The Crown company has successfully reproduced the exact shades of the enamels which the Chinese brought to perfection, also their powder blue. They have copied, too, old English work with equal success. Of their production one authority is of the opinion that "nothing of finer quality has ever been made in England, nothing with such an Oriental tone." They use the Crown mark on these reproductions.
CUP PLATES: Plates, three to five inches in diameter, occasioned by the custom of drinking tea from the saucer, which arose early in the 19th century. They were made at Staffordshire in great variety and their attractiveness served, probably, to prolong their use. The deep-blue examples date from 1815 to about 1835. The later pieces, printed in light colors, appeared about 1828 and continued until about 1860. These cup plates were in constant competition with the glass cup plates (q.v.) but the demand for both varieties gradually ceased.