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( Originally Published 1963 )
I SAY THERE, IS THAT YOU?
To begin with, if you don't need make-up, don't use it. Many women who start off with a beautiful complexion slowly ruin it by covering it up with something else. It makes me sad to see young girls of fourteen or fifteen who have what we call baby complexions but can't wait to start covering up a natural "peaches and cream" complexion with manufactured peaches and cream. Eventually they succeed in ruining what they had to begin with. I've overheard a thirteen-year-old girl say that she couldn't go without lipstick anymore because she'd lost all the natural color in her lips.
Not so long ago, a woman seen wearing recognizable make-up on the street was immediately classified as belonging to one of two professions-the theater, or that oldest one of all. Today, within the brief space of about fifty years, all that has changed and you can't tell the "good" woman from the "bad" one, even with a program. The reverse, in fact, is so complete that most of the actresses I know are far more conservative in their everyday make-up than are large numbers of women not connected with show business.
Wherever I go lately I see girls wearing enough make-up on their faces in the full bright light of day to go onstage at any given moment, and who would look overly made-up even there. The camouflage in some cases is so heavy that I wonder if these girls are recognizable to their own mothers. And what on earth do girls who wear this much warpaint to go to the corner drugstore or the supermarket do when they go out to the theater or to a party. A final question. Do these girls with their two inches of pancake and their iridescent green eyelids leap out of bed before their husbands open an eye to "put on their faces by the cold light of dawn?" (Don't laugh-women used to do this and some still do.) Do they perhaps sleep in full make-up? Or are they completely natural at home with not so much as a painted eyebrow?
MAKE-UP HOW MUCH AND WHY
You see, I'm still old-fashioned enough to believe that makeup should be used with discretion-so that not everyone for two blocks around can tell you have it on. I still think you should be the object of attention and not your make-up. I don't like to see girls, even very attractive ones, who are hiding behind layers of base and dark drawn eyelines that have no relation whatsoever to the face they are supposedly complementing.
The professional make-up man who knows that whatever errors he may make can be compensated for by the setting up of the lights, the angle of the camera and the retoucher, is far more cautious. With his training, his skill, the full equipment of his craft, he can almost create a face for the screen or theater. A long nose can be made to look much shorter, small eyes big and a wide face narrower. Nevertheless there's not a professional make-up man in the business who doesn't know that part of his job is to keep the theatrical talent from looking "over-done" and who doesn't have respect for the fact that no amount of make-up can or should change the personality of the face, its spirit, its own fundamental beauty.
The purpose of nontheatrical make-up for everyday wear should be, very simply, to bring forward in as natural manner as possible the best features of a woman's face and to minimize as much as possible the bad ones.
THE PAINT AND THE CANVAS
All make-up should be chosen with great care and according to the type of skin and complexion you have. It should never be used, in my opinion, for the purpose of covering up a bad skin or blemishes. Most blemishes are irritated by make-up and, if you begin this habit of trying to hide behind foundation, you'll find yourself becoming increasingly dependent on foundation for psychological armor. Then, whenever your skin has blemishes, you'll run for the make-up, which will only make the blemishes worse. You'll become increasingly timid about facing the world without make-up. You will be caught in the proverbial vicious cycle.
Save your full make-up treatments for special occasions, preferably nighttime ones when it can be its most effective and least apparent. Go without make-up whenever you can. Never go to bed with make-up on. Put your make-up on just before you leave the house and, whenever possible, spend a few hours outdoors without any make-up on your skin at all. All this helps to rest your skin and are the best ways to keep your skin its most alive so that when you do apply make-up it's not for the purpose of hiding what's underneath, but of truly enhancing it.
ARE YOU A MAKE-UP ADDICT?
Don't become a make-up addict-someone who must have the latest shade of this or that. Cosmetic manufacturers are doing a fine job of turning out huge varieties of enticing-looking makeups. You can buy make-up kits today that resemble artists' paintboxes. These kits have over twenty different colors, with brushes to apply them as rouge, lipstick, eyeshadow, base. You can buy a block of ten different shades of lipstick for not much more money than you'd pay for one. All this is, and should be, inspirational to the creative woman. With these new sets of make-up you can invent your own colors, express different moods, compliment the colors of your clothing.
I'm all for this new, more experimental approach to make-up. But I see two possible dangers.
Danger 1 is that women will use more make-up than they ever used before but without the skill it requires. A country of painted ladies is not what we're after. And unless you dip into your paintpots with great care and discretion that's what you'll look like. All those bright creamy colors are a tremendous temptation, one you'll have to learn to control.
YOUR MAKE-UP NEEDS
Danger 2 is, I think, even greater. I've told you umpteen times in this book that I consider individuality the sine qua non of beauty. In make-up terms, this means to me that a woman must discover what her own basic make-up needs are, and, more or less stick to them if they are right for her. The most beautiful women I know, some in films and television, some in public life, have found the base that is for them, the color rouge, the lipstick, and so forth. They may stray from this occasionally, but they return to their own look.
All the experimenting you do with different colors, different make-up techniques, utensils and so forth should lead you to finding which ones are for you. Go through make-up departments and see what new products there are on the market.
MAKE-UP YOU CAN BUY
Make-up is a booming business today. Women seem more and more determined to be beautiful at any cost. But walking into the cosmetics section of a big department store or even into the modern super-drugstore can be an almost bewildering experience. Counters of fascinating-looking jars, bottles, tubes and glittering colorful things as far as the eye can see-as intriguing to a woman as a treasure chest. But how, in the midst of all that, are you going to be able to choose what you need? The first step is to know what there is to choose from.
Since all cosmetics today are identified and sold by brand it's only logical that they are displayed together, often at a separate counter under the name of the manufacturer. The salesladies at these booths are trained not only to tell you about their products but they can show you how to use them. Each major manufacturer has his own formula make-ups, but they all carry the following fundamental items of cosmetics.
A) Skin creams, oils and lotions come in any number of varied compounds and are meant to be used for varied purposes: cleansing creams, moisturizing creams, hormone creams, dry skin creams, overnight mask creams, eye creams, neck creams, deep-cleansing creams, moisturizing lotions, eye lotions.
B) Hand and body creams, hand and body lotions, bath oils, bath salts, soaps.
C) Foundations: Cream foundation, pancake formula, drysheen base, liquid foundation. (Shades range from very light golds, pale pinks to dark dusky tones.) Puffs and sponges for application. D) Rouge: Dry rouge, cream rouge, liquid rouges. (Can always be bought with matching lipstick.) Rouge puffs like the old rabbit's foot, once popular as an applicator, are hard to find but still good.
E) Lipstick: Tube lipsticks (still dominate the market), liquid lip-rouge, pot lipstick (or cream lipstick). Also, lipstick brushes (best when made of sable or camel's hair), lip outline pencils, lip pomades and lipstick cases, plain and jewelled with mirror attached.
F) Eye make-up: Eyelash pomade (dark, natural, or black), eyebrow pencils (black, blue, brown, or gray), eyebrow brush, eyebrow brilliantine, eye pencil (black, light brown, dark brown, blue, gray, green, silver, gold), soft eyeliner (comes in same colors as the eye pencils), mascara (cake or liquid), eye shadow cream (in almost any color you can think of), eye shadow liquid with brush (any color), eye shadow stick.
G) Powders: (heavy, light, veil-like consistency) powder cases (all kinds), puffs (all weights).
FOUNDATIONSCHOOSE FOR YOUR SKIN
There are three different types of base to choose from. You can use a lotion or liquid-tinted-base, a cream base, or a pancake type make-up. The right base for you must be determined by the quality of your skin. Dry skins need a cream base but can use a liquid base if it has added lubricants, and many do. Cake makeup is in general quite drying to the skin and only women whose skins have a lot of natural lubrication (they're oily in other words), should use it for everyday wear.
A tinted liquid base can give a cleaner evener texture to the skin than any other type of base. It might be a good idea to own one even if you only use it for gala evenings. It should be applied smoothly over the face and throat with your fingertips. Use a very gentle touch and work small circles in upward motion. When the base is completely dry, dust your skin with a soft, almost dry sponge or a cotton ball puff. Finish with powder if you want to but if you intend to use rouge (of the cake or cream variety), wait to powder afterwards.
Cream bases come in stick or compact form. They serve as lubrication and protection from the wind, cold, and sun, if they are really good products. Apply your cream, again using your fingertips in upward motions in a very thin film over your face and throat. When the cream has set, you may want to pat on your powder.
Cake make-up is, in general, not a good everyday make-up. It's drying to the skin and under strong daylight usually looks obviously like make-up. Pancake can be a fine complement to a suntan on occasion, and it's good for evening wear because under artificial lights the effect is at its best. This is why pancake is still very much used for films and television. Most of the time Dave Lawrence (who does my TV make-ups) puts pancake on me because no other base will hold as well on my face under the strong TV lights, or for as long a time. Use a damp sponge to put cake make-up on and be sure you've worked it well under your jaw and into your hairline.
Medicated stick is used to cover up blemishes or any irregularities of tone on your face, but should not be confused with foundation. It is also to be used wherever shadows are deep. Lighten those areas prior to putting on base. And most women will find that this under-eye place can use some highlighting. Be sure you never overlighten your undereye hollow. It will give the whole thing away, and the effect will be quite strange.
I apply medicated stick under my eyes and on any blemishes I may have, and during the winter this is the only foundation I use at home or for local errands. In the winter, if I see my own color is poor, I may add a small amount of liquid rouge, then some powder. My everyday make-up includes foundation, powder, lipstick, eyeliner, mascara and eyebrow liner. But for dressier occasions, about the only difference I make is to go a bit heavier on the eye make-up.
WHAT TO HAVE IN YOUR MAKE-UP WARDROBE
Always be sure that your face is very, very clean before you begin putting your make-up on. A thin cream or moisturizing lotion will insure a smooth undercoating for what's to come. Keep your make-up and your make-up utensils in order and immaculate. I think the average woman's make-up wardrobe should include: several small sponges a jar of cotton puffs several powder puffs one or more varieties of base a medication stick a liquid and a dry rouge several lipsticks (for daytime and evening wear) one good lipstick brush a soft rouge brush a loose powder Your eye make-up will depend very much on the kind of eyes you have. Some women have such vivid eye coloring naturally that any added eye make-up is too much. Other women can literally make their faces by using the right sort of eye make-up. In general I think most women should own: a pair of tweezers a brown eyebrow pencil a black eyeliner a cake or tube of mascara two or three mascara brushes several shades of eyeshadow.
Absolutely essential for doing a good job of your make-up: one good handmirror to be used in conjunction with your stationary mirror. And for women who take their looks quite seriously from healthy vanity or because their careers depend on it-I consider a three-way mirror a must.