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PAIRPONT GLASS COMPANY: New Bedford, Massachusetts. This is the last remaining 19th century glassworks in this country that has used hand-blowing methods continuously.
PAPER WEIGHTS: Glass paper weights were very much the fashion in the Victorian period. They were made at glass-works both here and abroad, but the finest specimens are probably those of Baccarat in France. The Millefiori (q.v.) weights were the most beautiful but others were made with fruit and flower centers. The convex top of the glass served to magnify the design. Pressed-glass, cheaper paper weights were also made.
PATAPSCO RIVER GLASS WORKS: See BALTIMORE GLASS WORKS.
PATTERN GLASS: See GLASS, Pattern.
PATTERNS IN GLASS: The great number of patterns of pressed glass produced in almost endless variety last half of 19th century present one of the hardest problems in glass classification. Much of the glass falls, however, into a few principal types; the geometrical, the waffle, and thumbprint and others, for example (these are not to be confwed with the geometrical designs on three-mold blown glass); the floral, such as bell-flower, rose and other flower subjects; the animal-the lion and Westward Ho are examples; the fruit group, including among others the currant, grape and pineapple; and the historical group with likenesses of Washington and Grant and the Lincoln Drape. Besides these are numerous minor classifications. The most complete illustrated reference book on this subject is Early American Pressed Glass by RUTH WEBB LEE. See GLASS, Pattern.
PEACHBLOW GLASS: A name derived from the Chinese peachblow porcelain and applied to a glass made by the New England Glass Co. of Cambridge, the Mt. Washington Glass Works at New Bedford, and other factories. Although it was a beautiful glass, it was not a success commercially and very little of this ware was made. Specimens are accordingly rare. Cambridge peachblow shades from a cream white to a violet red; the Mt. Washington peachblow from a bluish white to a blush pink.
PEG LAMPS: The name given to glass lamps with a peg-like base intended for use in the top of a candlestick.
PHILADELPHIA GLASS WORKS: See DYOTTVILLE GLASS WORKS.
PHOENIX GLASS WORKS: See PITTSBURGH GLASS HOUSES.
PITKIN GLASS WORKS: Glass was made at Manchester, Connecticut, by Captain Richard Pitkin and his two sons William and Elisha from 1783 to 1830. The product was bottles, flasks and demijohns made from olive-green and amber glass. Few authentic specimens exist and these are closely held. The "Pitkin type" ribbed flask is known to every American collector. They were later made at Keene, New Hampshire, and by some of the Ohio glass factories.
PITTSBURGH (Pennsylvania) GLASS HOUSES: The O'Hara Glass Works started in 1797 by James O'Hara and Isaac Craig was the first of the pioneer glass-houses in the Allegheny region that endured more than eighty years in the same location. In 1813 there were five glass factories in Pittsburgh, in 1826 eight, and in 1857 there were thirty-three, nine of which were flint glass-houses. Window glass, bottles and hollow ware were the products of the early factories. The O'Hara plant was the first in this country to use coal for fuel. In 1819 O'Hara died; Frederick Lorenz leased his plant, and in 1838 William McCully, who was to become one of the most prominent of Pittsburgh glass-makers, joined Lolenz. The Phoenix Glass Works was established in 1833 for making bottles and in 1840 was merged with the O'Hara works, then known as the Pittsburgh Glass Works. In 1851, McCully withdrew from the company, purchased the Sligo plant, one of the O'Hara factories, and operated for many years as William McCully and Company. Bakewell, Pears & Co. (q.v.) and James B. Lyon and Company (q.v.) were two others of the prominent Pittsburgh concerns, which produced molded (blown) and pressed glass in great variety and in enormous quantities. Some of the pressed glass was of such a superior quality that it was difficult to tell it from cut glass.
POMONA GLASS: A variety of clear glass blown in a part-sized mold, then expanded and ornamented by etching and staining, made by the New England Glass Co. at Cambridge. There are but few remaining specimens of this glass.
PONTIL: See TOOLS.
PONTIL-MARK: This is a rough circular scar found on the bottom of old blown glass caused by the breaking of the glass from the pontil or punty rod which held it while the workman finished the piece. As methods improved the mark was ground down smooth and after 1850 the pontil mark disappeared completely. Modern reproductions of old glass, as a rule, have a rough pontil'mark but the fracture is generally cleaner and sharper than on the genuine old glass.
PORCELAIN AND GLASS MANUFACTURING CO.: See NEW ENGLAND GLASS CO.
PORTLAND (Maine) GLASS WORKS: Pressed glass tableware in sets, both clear and colored, was made at a factory here from 1864 to 1873. Some pieces are marked P. G. Co. especially in the "Tree of Life" pattern.
PORTLAND VASE: A celebrated ancient Roman glass vase supposed to have been made in the time of Augustus, found in the 17th century in a marble sarcophagus near Rome. The ground of the vase is dark blue glass and the figure subjects which adorn it are cut in cameo style in an outer layer of white opaque glass. It was at first called the Barberini vase from the name of the palace where it was placed, but later coming into the possession of the Duchess of Portland, it became known thereafter as the Portland Vase. It was finally placed in the British Museum, and in 1845 a viAtor dashed it to pieces, but all of the pieces were saved and the vase was restored to the semblance of its original beauty.
POTICHOMANIE: A word derived from the French, indicating a type of decoration on glass vases in imitation of porcelain or pottery, in vogue in the middle of the 19th century.
PRESSED GLASS: See GLASS, Pressed.
PRUNTS: The name given to the projections or bosses of varied forms scattered on the sides of some early glass. They are characteristic of early German and Dutch glass and they are also seen on old English glass. The name should be restricted to those cases where the "blob" is sufficiently large to melt away the surrounding glass. Where it is small and merely dropped on the glass, the word "tear" better expresses the form.