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NAILSEA (England) GLASS WORKS: The glass-works at Nailsea, England, about nine miles from Bristol, were started by John R. Lucas in 1788 and glass-making was carried on there until 1873. The ware was, in general, cruder and cheaper than that of Bristol. It is inferior in style, color, texture and workmanship. Ornamental flasks were Nailsea's chief product. These flasks vary in height from three to ten inches, and they were made in various colors as well as in the ribbon effects. Bottles, jugs and bowls were also made. A characteristic of Nailsea bottle glass is a scattering of spots and blotches in thin milk and clear glass. Another is decoration by threads, loops and stripes of white enamel on clear glass. These also were made in colors (polychrome). Old Nailsea glass is now quite rare and commands a high price. See ENGLISH GLASS.
NEW BREMEN (Maryland) GLASS WORKS: See AMELUNG.
NEWCASTLE (England) GLASS: Drinking glasses were made here late in the 16th century, but specimens of this early glass are not known to exist today. A century later when lead (flint) glass was introduced here, two factories were in operation and continued to produce glass for about two hundred years. Some of this was the best flint glass ever produced in England, of which its clarity (whiteness) is an evidence. Toward the end of the 18th century new glasshouses were erected which emphasized quantity rather than quality, and the reputation of Newcastle glass declined. Imitations of Bristol opaque, white and colored glass were made, and later Bohemian glass was imitated. For a century Newcastle has also produced pressed glass. See ENGLISH GLASS.
NEW ENGLAND CROWN GLASS CO.: Cambridge, Massachusetts. Organized in 1824, and although separate from the New England Glass Co., intimately connected with it. They made crown glass in various grades and for a time were very successful. The business became insolvent in 1838 and the works were finally taken over by the New England Glass Co.
NEW ENGLAND GLASS BOTTLE CO.: Cambridge, Massachusetts. Another factory closely connected with the New England Glass Co., established in 1826 and in existence for nineteen years. Their object was to produce black and green glass wares, and presumably this factory was the source of some of the early bottles and flasks now sought for.
NEW ENGLAND GLASS COMPANY: This company, founded at Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1818 by Edmund H. Monroe and others, purchased a property known as the Boston Porcelain and Glass Company for the site of their works. It continued in operation for about seventy years and a great variety of objects in plain blown, molded, pressed, colored and cut glass were produced. Beautifully engraved ware was also a product of this company. Success attended the efforts of the company from the start, and by the middle of the century it was said to be the largest glass manufactory in the world. Deming Jarves, who in 1825 founded the Boston and Sandwich Glass Company, was previously general manager at Cambridge. The method of making pressed glass (q.v.) was introduced here and at Sandwich at about the same time, and' credit for perfecting this method is given by some to one company and by others to the other company. Practically all of the glass of this factory was lead flint, whether plain or cut. The pontil-mark appears on only the earliest pieces. After a successful career for about fifty years, the competition from lime-glass makers and the excessive cost of fuel, compared with oil and natural gas of the western manufacturers, brought disaster to the New England Company. In 1878 the works were leased to W. L. Libbey, who had been agent for the company since 1872, and ten years later they were moved to Toledo, Ohio. See LIBBEY GLASS COMPANY.
NEW GENEVA (Pennsylvania) GLASS WORKS: This factory was established in 1797 by Christian Kramer and others of the German workmen who were brought to America by John Frederick Amelung in 1784. See AMELUNG GLASS WORKS. It continued at New Geneva until 1307 when it was removed to Greensboro (q.v.). During the first six years Albert Gallatin, afterwards Secretary of the Treasury of the United States, was a partner. The product was mainly window glass, although bottles, pitchers, etc., were made of a pale green shade. Later, a factory was started here again and continued to make glass until 1857.
NEW HAMPSHIRE GLASS FACTORY: See KEENE GLASS WORKS.
NEW JERSEY GLASS WORKS: There were many glass-works in New Jersey during the early 19th century. Among these see SOUTH JERSEY GLASS, COLUMBIA GLASS WORKS, GLASSBORO GLASS WORKS, HAMMONTON GLASS WORKS, WATERFORD GLASS WORKS, also WISTARBERG GLASS. Consult Early American Glass, RHEA M. KNITTLE.
NEW LONDON (Connecticut) GLASS WORKS: A factory here operating under various names from 1856 to 1874, produced colored glass and aquamarine flasks, jars and demijohns.
NEW YORK STATE GLASS HOUSES: New York State was among the first of the states where glass was made. There were at least thirty to forty little glass factories scattered about the state making window glass and bottles, but most of them were short-lived and their production was small. The glass was usually amber or aquamarine. Practically none of them produced blown tableware or decorative glass as a commercial product. Many of the workmen were employed formerly at South Jersey works, and carried into their new employment, traditions of style and methods earlier used. See ONEIDA GLASS FACTORY.
NORTHUMBERLAND GLASS COMPANY: Located at Leamington, England, near Newcastle, the factory here, founded in 1787, carried on glass-making successfully throughout the 19th century.