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CAMEO GLASS: See GLASS, Cameo.
CANDLESTICKS: The earliest glass candlesticks were made in England during the reign of Charles II. At first it was customary to mold these in two sections and fuse the sections together, leaving some irregularity. A straight, clean seam indicates pressing in a machine mold, and is therefore later. Candlesticks were made of pressed glass after the first quarter of the 19th century. The so-called "dolphin" candlestick is a familiar type to the collector.
CAPE COD GLASS CO.: Sandwich, Massachusetts, started by Deming Jarves in 1858, after his resignation from the Boston and Sandwich Glass Co., with which company he had been associated for more than thirty years. The new company was never very successful and after the death of Jarves in 1869 the factory was closed. Ware similar to that of "Sandwich" was produced.
CASE BOTTLES: See BOTTLES, Case.
CAST GLASS: Cast in a mold very much after the manner of molten iron. When taken from the mold it is very apt to be rough and to require subsequent polishing of surfaces and edges. The mixture in cast glass is heated to a higher temperature and is more liquid.
CHAMPLAIN GLASS WORKS: Established at Burlington, Vermont, in 1827 to make window glass with a side production of bottles. The glass was of excellent quality and heavier than most of the window glass of its time. Bottles were distinguished by a bluish-green cast. The "off hand" blown examples of the Burlington works form some of the choicest specimens of our native glass-craftsmanship in existence. The high price of fuel put an end to the business in 1848.
CHANDELIERS: The glass chandelier or lustre was in vogue in England and to a lesser extent in this country throughout the 18th century. At the beginning of the 19th century the design became decadent and metal chandeliers gradually replaced the glass. In their best period some were very elaborate and expensive. The first glass chandelier to be made in this country was made at Pittsburgh in 1810. The New England Glass Co. at Cambridge, Sandwich, and other factories also made them throughout their existence, some of them very elaborate. See CHANDELIERS, PART 5:
CHELMSFORD GLASS WORKS: Established in 1802 at Chelmsford, Massachusetts, by Hunnewell and Gore. The enterprise was successful for a time but in 1827 the firm failed, and the business was taken over by others and operated for about twelve years, when it was removed to Suncook, New Hampshire, where operations were continued until about 1850. It is believed that the "Lowell Railroad" bottle was made at Chelmsford in 1829.
CHEVAL GLASS: A large glass or mirror, introduced late 18th century, swinging between framed-up supports.
CHINESE GLASS: China does not appear to have given the attention to making glass in early times that she gave to the ceramic arts. The Chinese have, however, for some time past, been making glass of extreme beauty and of graceful shapes. The Chinese snuff bottles (q.v.), of infinite variety, make one of the most charming items for a collector.
CLEVELAND GLASS WORKS: There were three glass factories at Cleveland, New York. Anthony Land' graft and Sons was founded in 1840, the Union Glass Company in 1851 and the Empire Glass Company. A superior quality of sand found nearby gave to the glass produced here exceptional brilliance. The off hand pieces now in existence resemble the product of Southern New Jersey glass-works.
COLORED GLASS: See GLASS, Colored. COLUMBIA GLASS WORKS At Columbia, New Jersey, in operation from about 1812 to 1833. Principal product was a good grade of crown glass for windows. Tableware was occasionally blown from the "potends" of the window glass for home use by the workmen.CONGRESSVILLE GLASS WORKS: See SARATOGA GLASS.
CORK GLASS: Glass-works were established in Cork, Ireland, late in the 18th century and were carried on by various manufacturers for about sixty years. Cork glass resembles that made at Dublin with a slightly amber tinge. Much of the product was exported to America and to various places in Europe. Cork glass is rarer than that of Waterford. It is not so heavy nor is it as deeply cut.
CORNING GLASS WORKS: Organized in 1875 at Corning, New York, the successor of the South Ferry Glass Works of Brooklyn, which moved to Corning in 1868. It is at the present time one of the leading glass factories in this country. They make exquisite glass of all kinds, particularly in colors.
COVENTRY GLASS: WORKS This company was started in 1813 at Coventry, Connecticut, and continued until 1848, when the works were closed on account of lack of fuel. They made hollow ware, decanters, demi johns, and some of the earliest historic flasks in shades of green and amber, notably the General Lafayette and DeWitt Clinton flasks. Their flasks are among the finest, in both design and metal, produced by American makers. Thomas Stebbins, the proprietor, first conceived the idea of stamping the busts of our state and national heroes upon Americanmade bottles.
CRACKLED GLASS: See GLASS, Crackled.
CULLET: Name given to broken or refuse glass, with which the batch in the pots is mixed. From one quarter to one half in bulk is used in addition to the regular ingredients in making flint glass.
CUP PLATES: Small plates, usually from three to four inches in diameter, in which the cup was set, when the tea was poured into the saucer for cooling before drinking, to protect the table or linen from marks or stains. The first glass cup plates in America were probably made at Sandwich. They were of pressed glass, both transparent and opaque, and were very much in demand for more than thirty years. The design upon them was at first conventional, followed by those of a historical nature, of which alone there are more than forty designs.
Some of the more prominent of these are the "Bunker Hill," "Constitution," "Washington," "Henry Clay," "William Henry Harrison," "Chancellor Livingston," "Benjamin Franklin," these last two being what are known as "Steamboat" designs. The octagonal Washington cup plate is one of the most desired by collectors. There are altogether more than 600 different patterns, and the old cup plates have been frequently imitated in modern glass. There is a size somewhat larger than the usualcup plate, known as the "toddy" plate, and a six-inch diameter plate, the tea plate, both of pressed glass. These are both sufficiently rare to make them desirable for collection also.
CUT GLASS: See GLASS, Cut.