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Clocks And Watches (U) - Encyclopedia Of Antiques

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Unbreakable Glass: A watch 'glass' made of Perspex, Plexiglas, or other plastics material. See Glass.

Uniform Time: Time which has been corrected for all known irregularities. See Universal Time, Ephemeris Time, Time Determination.

Universal Clock: A WORLD CLOCK or world time clock.

Universal Sundial: Most SUNDIALS are designed to work only in one latitude. A universal one can be adjusted to any latitude.

Universal Time: Time calculated from the rotation of the Earth (i.e. GREENWICH MEAN TIME) but corrected for certain irregularities, including movement of the Earth's axis. Adopted internationally in 1950 as the basis for civil timekeeping, navigating, and surveying, although it is not absolutely uniform. See Uniform Time and Time Determination.

Universal Time Dial: Alternative name for WORLD TIME DIAL. Watches showing time over the world are made for airline pilots and travellers. Some have two dials side by side and the hands can be set to show times in two different places.

Up-and-Down Dial: Dial which shows how much a MAINSPRING 1S wound. Used On MARINE CHRONOMETERS arid Some AUTOMATIC WATCHES.

U.S.A. Horological Industry: First American clockmakers were European immigrants, one of the earliest being Wm. Davis who arrived in Boston in 1683. New England States led the way, particularly Connecticut, where Daniel Burnap, Eh TERRY, Seth THOMAS, Elias Hoodley, Chauncy Jerome worked. Main town centres were Plymouth, Winstead, WATERBURY and Bristol, where Elias Ingraham had his workshop. Most famous Massachusetts clockmakers were the Willard family, who developed the BANJO CLOCK. In Pennsylvania, David Rittenhouse (b. 1732) made fine COMPLICATED CLOCKS arid mathematical instruments. Mass-production methods and the making of watches by machine were pioneered in the U.S.A., which was first with cheap watches. American watch and clock companies now also have factories in Britain (two), Switzerland, Germany and Japan. Output of watches is 9.2 % of the world total. Produced the first ELECTRIC and ELECTRONIC WATCHES.