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Quail Clock: Similar to a CUCKOO CLOCK but its bellows imitate the quail.
Quality Standards: The quality of a timepiece depends on design, sound construction, finish, timekeeping abilities, etc. Most tests are for timekeeping only (see Rating Certificate) but quality standard tests are applied to some manufacture, the best known being the French Cetehor standard. There are certain British Standards, but they are not compulsory.
Quare, Daniel (1649-1724): A Quaker who refused to take the oath of allegiance to become clockmaker to George I, but nevertheless was granted the office and permission to use the back stairs! Invented a REPEATER watch (now in the ASHMOLEAN MUSEUM) about six years before BARLOW and successfully opposed his application for a patent. Also made fine barometers, and thin watches only 1/8 in. between PLATES.
Quarter Boy: The JACK that strikes the quarter hours on a clock with AUTOMATA. Quarter Repeater Clock or watch REPEATER that repeats hours and quarters, but not minutes. Thus four strokes followed by three TING TANG notes indicates three quarters after four, i.e. 4.45.
Quartz Crystal Clock (Quartz clock): Electronic clock accurate to the equivalent of about 1 sec. in 30 years; invented by W. A. Marrison in the U.S.A., in 1929. A slice of quartz or ESSEN RING given alternate charges of electricity at the appropriate frequency resonates like a piano string. This is known as the piezoelectric effect. Such a crystal cut to vibrate at 100,000 cycles a second controls an oscillating circuit with extreme accuracy, acting like the ESCAPEMENT of a mechanical clock. The frequency is broken down by frequency dividers to 100 cycles per second and this operates a PHONIC MOTOR to show time or operate TIME SIGNALS. Observatories use large crystal clocks (OBSERVATORY CLOCKS) in groups of six or so. All have their own temperature-controlled crystals kept in a special chamber like a prison cell. The rates are compared with SIDEREAL (or star) TIME. Royal Observatory quartz clocks are better timekeepers than the Earth. Small quartz clocks (ELECTRONIC CHRONOMETERS) are used for measuring short time intervals in industry and in RATE RECORDERS for checking watch RATES.
Queen Charlotte's Watch: The most influential watch ever made, as it incorporated the first LEVER ESCAPEMENT which eventually revolutionized watch and clock accuracy and manufacture. Made by Thos. MUDGE in 1759. He thought little of it and, as it was so difficult to make, no other appeared until 1782, when Josiah Emery improved it by introducing DRAW. After about 1825, it gradually became universal. The original watch, made to the order of King George III, is in the ROYAL COLLECTION and is kept at Windsor Castle. (The King was very interested in horology, had lessons in repairing, and had his own observatory in Richmond Park.) It is in a gold PAIR CASE about 21 in. in diameter and 11 in. thick, with enamelled dial, and CENTRE SECONDS HAND. There IS a SOLID BALANCE Wheel with TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION by BI-METALLIC COMPENSATION CURB.