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Karrusel: Arrangement similar to the TOURBILLION in which the ESCAPEMENT revolves every 52 1/2 minutes; invented by Aarne Bonniksen in Coventry in 1894.
Kassel: Ancient centre of clockmaking. Some fine ASTRONOMICAL CLOCKS are preserved in the State Museum. Kassel is in Hessen, Germany.
Kew 'A' Certificate: Performance certificate for timekeepers introduced in 1885 at the Kew Observatory, Old Deer Park, Richmond, and taken over by the NATIONAL PHYSICAL LABORATORY at Teddington, in 1912. This, and the lower grade 'B' Certificate tests, were superseded in 1951 by the N.P.L. CRAFTSMANSHIP TEST. The Kew Observatory was originally built for King George III who was keenly interested in timekeepers. Now it is the Air Ministry Meteorological Office. See Rating Certificate and Timekeeping Trials.
Key: Used for winding, or sometimes for SETTING UP, the MAINSPRING. No watch keys before the seventeenth century have survived. The early crank type in iron or brass was replaced by the T-shaped key around 1650, which became elaborately pierced and engraved or set with agate, rock crystal, or cameos after the Commonwealth. The best watches had gold or silver keys from about 1680 to 1770. At about this time, simpler brass and steel keys were introduced, but London makers still supplied gilt embossed crank keys with watches for the Turkish market until around 1840. Clock keys were similar but not so decorative. Many spring-driven clocks today have their keys permanently attached.
Keyless Watch: Having to wind a watch by a separate KEY was a nuisance as the key was easily lost. In the eighteenth century many attempts were made to invent keyless winding but it was not until 1820 that T. Prest, foreman to J. R. ARNOLD produced a successful winding button. The mechanism in modern watches was invented by Adrien Phillipe in 1843 and developed by Le Coultre and Audemars.
Kitchen Clock: Normally a wall clock for kitchen use.
Knibb, Joseph (b. 1640): Joseph and his younger brother John became renowned clockmakers. Joseph is recorded as 'gardner' to Trinity College, Oxford, as well as a clockmaker. Later he set up at 'The Dial' in Fleet Street, London. He used ROMAN STRIKING and also made NIGHT CLOCKS. John remained in Oxford and was Mayor in 1700.