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CALDER, WILLIAM (1792-1850): Pewterer of Providence, Rhode Island. He began work in 1817 and made a variety of utensils for household and church use. He used two touches; one, an eagle, the other simply his last name in small capital letters.
CAMP, HIRAM (1811-1893): A Connecticut clock-maker, nephew of Chauncey Je-rome (q.v.), who organized the New Haven Clock Company in 1853 and was its president until his death.
CARLILE, JOHN (1762-1832): Cabinet-maker, born in Boston, who went to Providence while a young man and started cabinet-making there. His cabinet work is closely related to Hepplewhite and Sheraton models, and gives evidence of good workmanship in construction and good taste in simple inlay. He was a public-spirited citizen and in 1824 presided in the town council which received Lafayette. Carlile was also a Mason.
CARTWRIGHT, EDMUND (1743-1823): The inventor of the power loom in 1785, he was born in Nottinghamshire, England. He was a clergyman by profession but he became interested in cotton-spinning, and besides his power loom, he took out a patent in 1789 on a wool-carding machine, and also obtained patents for various other improvements in textile machinery. His patents yielded him little return, however, and in 1809 Parliament granted him E10,000 in consideration of his inventions. It was not until the beginning of the 19th century that the power loom came into practical use.
CHAFFERS, RICHARD (1731-1765): A Liverpool potter who made at first blue and white earthenware for exportation to America. In 1756 he was the owner of a soapstone mine in Cornwall, from which he utilized soapstone to make porcelain of excellent quality decorated with subjects of a Chinese character.
CHAMBERS, SIR WILLIAM (1726-1796): A Scotch architect and designer of furniture in the Chinese style. In his early life he visited China and made notes and sketches of furniture, buildings and gardens, of which he made good use on his return to England. His influence is plainly traceable in many of Chippendale's best productions. He was among the first to treat the art of interior decoration and designing as one congruous whole and give it a worthy place alongside other decorative and applied arts. His accomplishments were recognized by King George III, who appointed him Royal Architect. The Somerset House in London was designed by him.
CHAPIN, AARON (1751-1838): Born in Chicopee, Massachusetts. In 1783 he removed to Hartford, Connecticut., where he became one of the best workmen of the cabinet-makers of that state. Chapin worked mostly in cherry. One of his highboys, now in the Fine Arts Gallery at Yale University, is particularly notable in design. It is a combination of Queen Anne and Chippendale styles with a bonnet top of his own design.
CHAPIN, ELIPHALET (1741-1807): A cabinet-maker of East Windsor, Connecticut, thought to be a relative of Aaron Chapin (above). It is supposed that Eliphalet was the maker of some of the best pieces of cherry cabinet work for which Connecticut cabinet-makers are noted, although there is but little documentary evidence in support of such a theory. A special feature is the spiraled rosettes terminating the broken arch.
CHIPPENDALE, THOMAS (1709-1779): It has been generally believed that this most famous of English cabinet-makers was born in Worcestershire in 1709, the son of Thomas Chippendale (died 1753), a wood carver and cabinetmaker, although Oliver Brackett says that he was probably the son of John Chippendale, a joiner, and was born at Otley in Yorkshire in 1718. Thomas married in 1748 and in 1749 was living in London. He was a good business man and attracted a large and fashionable clientele to his shop in St. Martin's Lane, where he was located in 1753. In 1754 he published the Gentleman and Cabinet-Maker's Director, which passed through several editions. In 1760, he was elected a member of the Society of Arts. He worked in mahogany almost altogether, was very careful in the selection of woods, and relied upon carving for his decorative effects. As a carver he was without a peer.
Chippendale did not find it necessary to invent. He superimposed, on the sturdy English carcase, designs drawn from French, Gothic, Dutch and Chinese sources, adding, to every style from which he drew, grace, strength and solidity without heaviness, wonderful craftsmanship, and homelike character. When old age was approaching, he took up commissions from Robert Adam and carried out his classic designs, even including inlaying, which he had never done before. After his death, the business was continued until 1796 by his son (Thomas, Jr. 1749-1822) under the name of Chippendale, Haig & Co., and the high level of work which always distinguished the shop in St. Martin's Lane was maintained.
CIPRIANI, GIOVANNI (1727-1785): A Florentine artist who came to England in 1755 and soon achieved a reputation for painted decoration in public buildings and houses. He probably inspired much of the painted furniture of the period, although there are no known existing examples of his work.
CLAGGETT, WILLIAM (1696-1749): An early maker of good clocks in Newport, Rhode Island. He is said to have been born in Wales and lived first in this country at Boston. The dials of his clocks were masterpieces of the engraver's art. His brother. Thomas was also a clock-maker.
CLARK, DANIEL (1768-1830): Cabinet-maker of Salem, Massachusetts. He received his training in Boston and started business in Salem in 1796. He made and carved tables, chairs, chests of drawers and other furniture.
CLARK, PETER (1743-1826): Born in Braintree, Massachusetts, and moved to Lyndeboro, New Hampshire, in 1775 where he erected a kiln for making pottery. After service in the army, he carried on his business for a number of years making jugs, jars and pots for various purposes. The business was continued after his death by his sons.
CLEWS, JAMES (1786-1856): Staffordshire potter who bought, with his brother Ralph, the works of Andrew Stevenson at Cobridge in 1819. Clews made a series of American Historical plates and his "Landing of Lafayette" plates, made in 1824, are much sought after by collectors, as are his "Doctor Syntax," his "David Wilkie," and "Don Quixote" designs. The characteristic Clews mark is a circle impressed with a crown inside and the words "Clews Warranted Staffordshire." In 1836, Clews came to this country and started a pottery at Troy, Indiana, which failed, and Clews returned to England. Perhaps no English potter was better known on this side of the Atlantic than James Clews.
COBURN, JOHN (1725-1803): Silversmith of Boston, whose shop was located on King (now State) Street opposite the American Coffee House. That he was an excellent craftsman, examples of his work in various collections testify. After the Revolution he was town warden and a census recorder.
CONEY, JOHN (1655-1722): Silversmith of Boston who learned his trade either under John Hull (q.v.) or Jeremiah Dummer. He was one of the most prolific of Boston silversmiths and his work ranks among the best of Colonial silversmiths. At least 147 examples of his work are in existence today, consisting of beakers, candle cups, chafing dishes, porringers, tankards and other pieces. The father of Paul Revere was one of his apprentices, and he was a brother-in-law of Jeremiah Dummer (q.v.), another Boston silver' smith. Coney was an engraver of unusual skill, and he engraved the plates for Massachusetts in 1690 for the first paper money used in the Colonies. He was successful in his business but took small part in public affairs.
CREHORE, CHARLES C. (1793-1879): Made clock cases for Simon and Benjamin Willard and other clock-makers of the period. He also made piano cases and violins.
CONNELLY, HENRY (1770-1826): Philadelphia cabinet-maker and a real master craftsman after the style of Sheraton. His work places him among those of first rank as a furniture-maker and designer.
COOKWORTHY, WILLIAM (1705-1750): A Quaker chemist of Plymouth (later of Bristol), England, who established a porcelain factory there, patenting in 1768 virtually the first English porcelain of native ingredients. It is said that he was the discoverer of the clay (kaolin) in Cornwall from which the great potting trade in England has received more benefit than from almost any other source.
COPELAND, WILLIAM (?-1826): English potter who became a partner of Josiah Spode, Jr., at Stoke-on-Trent in 1797. Descendants of William Copeland are carrying on the business today under the name of W. T. Copeland and Sons.
COWELL, WILLIAM (1682-1736): A Boston silversmith of some prominence.
CROLIUS, WILLIAM: One of the early potters of New York, coming to this country from Germany where he learned his trade. His pottery was located about 1735 just north of the present City Hall near that of John Remmey (q.v.), a brother-in-law, and the business was carried on for many years by descendants of William Crolius. See CROLIUS WARE, PART 2.
CROMPTON, SAMUEL (1753-1827): An English inventor whose spinning mule, perfected in 1779, revolutionized the cotton-weaving industry. He was unable to bear the expense of taking out a patent, and manufacturers made use of the invention without compensation to the inventor. In 1812 Parliament granted him £5000, the only official recognition bestowed upon him.
CUMMING, ALEXANDER (1732-1814): Scotch clock-maker who removed to London. He made the astronomical clock now in Buckingham Palace for George III, for which he was paid 2000 pounds.
CUMMINS, WILLIAM: Clock-maker at Roxbury, Massachusetts, an apprentice of Sirnon Willard.
CURTIS, LEMUEL (1790-1857): Clock-maker, born in Boston, who started in business at Concord, Massachusetts, from which place he removed to Burlington, Vermont, in 1818. He had been an apprentice of Simon Willard in Boston, and made an improvement in the movement of the Willard banjo clock for which he took out a patent in 1816. He made only wall and shelf clocks, all of which were splendid examples of the clocks of the period. His banjo clocks usually had a rounded bottom for the swing of the pendulum, with a convex glass and classical painting on it, called a "girandole" clock.
CUSTER, JACOB D. (1805-1872): Clock-maker of Norristown, Pennsylvania. In 1842 he began the manufacture of clocks to propel the lights in lighthouses. He also made long-case clocks.