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Turkey In Europe - Turkey Of The Greeks
THE whole of the ,Egean seaboard of European Turkey is occupied by Greeks, and this proves the great influence which the sea has exercised upon the migrations of the Mediterranean nations. Thessaly, Macedonia, Chalcis, and Thrace are more or less Greek countries, and even Constantinople lies within Greece, as defined by ethnological boundaries..
Turkey In Europe - Albania And Epirus
THE name of Shkiperi, which the Albanians give to the country they inhabit, is supposed to mean 'land of rocks,' and no designation could be more appropriate. Stony mountains occupy the whole of the country, from the frontiers of Montenegro to those of Greece. The only plain of any. extent is that of Scutari (Shkodra), to the south of the Montenegrin plateau, which forms the natural frontier of...
Turkey In Europe - The Illyrian Alps, Bosnia, And Herzegovina
BOSNIA, in the north-western corner of Turkey, is the Switzerland of the European Orient, but it is a Switzerland whose mountains do not reach the zone of perennial snow and ice. In many respects the mountain ranges of Bosnia, and of its southern province, the Herzegovina, resemble those of the Jura. They, too, are composed principally of limestone, and rise in parallel ridges, surmounted here and...
Turkey In Europe - Bulgaria
THE centre plateau of Turkey is still amongst the least-known countries of the Balkan peninsula, although it is intersected by the great highways which connect Thracia with Bosnia, and Macedonia with the Danube. This plateau, known to the ancients as Upper Moesia, consists of a vast granitic table-land, rising to an average height of 2,000 feet. Its surface is diversified by several planinas...
Turkey In Europe - Present Position And Prospects
THE prophecies respecting the 'sick man' have not yet been fulfilled, and his heritage divided amongst the surrounding powers. To a great extent he is indebted for this continued existence to the jealousies of the European powers, and to the fact of Russia having her hands full in Central Asia. Still, Turkey has recently exhibited a wonderful amount of vitality.
Turkey In Europe - Government And Administration
THE Turkish empire occupies a vast area, the greater portion of which is governed by vassals, almost independent of the Sultan at Stambul. The vast territories of Egypt and Tunis are in that position. The interior of Arabia is in possession of the Wahabites ; the coast of Hadramaut is inhabited partly by tribes acknowledging the suzerainty of England ; and even between Syria and the Euphrates...
Romania
THE Romanians are certainly one of the most curious amongst European nations The descendants of the conquerors of the ancient world, they lise detached from, and far to the north-east of, the other nations of the Greco-Latin family, and not many years ago they were hardly known by name. The grave events of which the Lower Danube has been the scene since the middle of this century have brought these Romanians prominently to the fore...
Servia
SERVIA , like Romania, was until recently a semi-independent state, paying a tribute of 25,000 a year to the Porte, and submitting to the presence of a Turkish garrison at Mali-Zvornik, on the Bosnian frontier. But even these vestiges of ancient oppression irritated the national pride to an inconceivable degree, and the moment when a blow might be struck on behalf of Servia and the neighbouring...
Montenegro
THE name Montenegro is a translation of the Servian Tsrnagora, black mountains. It is a curious designation for a country of white or greyish calcareous mountains, whose colour even strikes the voyager on the Adriatic. The name, according to some, is to be taken figuratively, and is to be understood as designating a country of 'bad' or 'black' men...
Italy - General Aspects
THE limits of the Italian peninsula have been most distinctly traced by nature. The Alps, which bound it in the north, from the promontories of Liguria to the mountainous peninsula of Istria, present themselves like a huge wall, the only breaches in which are formed by passes situated high up in the zones of pines, pastures, or eternal snows.
Italy - The Basin Of The Po
THE valley of the Po is frequently spoken of as Upper Italy, because it occupies the northern portion of the peninsula, but might more appropriately be termed the Italian Netherlands, for its elevation is less than that of any other group of provinces. It is a river valley now, but during the Pliocene epoch it stil formed a gulf of the sea.
Italy - Liguria And The Riviera Of Genoa
LIGURIA is but a narrow slip of land if we compare it with the broad plain of theto, but it is one of the most clearly defined districts of Europe, and its inhabitants hase retained many original traits. The contrast between the Padane plains and the littoral region beyond the barren Apennines is striking, hut if we travel in the direction of Provence or of Tuscany the landscape changes only by...
Italy - Tuscany
Tuscany, like Liguria, lies on the southern slope of the Apennines, but is of far greater width, for that back-bone of Italy retreats there from the Gulf of Genoa, and stretches right across the broadest part of the peninsula to the Adriatic. Besides this there are several detached plateaux and mountain ranges to the south of the valley of the Arno.
Italy - The Roman Apennines, The Valley Of The Tiber, The Marches, And The Abruzzos
That portion of the Italian peninsula which has Rome for its centre may be likened to the trunk of the body, for it is there the Apennines attain their greatest height, and nowhere else to the south of the Po are rivers of equal magnitude met with'The main rampart of the Apennines runs parallel to the coast cf the Adriatic.
Italy - Southern Italy, Naples
AMONGST the various states which have been welded into the modern kingdom of Italy, Naples, though second to others in population and industry, occupies the largest area. It embraces the whole southern half of the peninsula, and its coast has a development of 993 miles. Formerly the country was better known than any other portion of Italy as Magna Graecia...
Italy - Sicily
THE Trinacria of the ancients, the island with the 'three promontories,' is clearly a dependency of the Italian peninsula, from which it is separated by a narrow arm of' the sea. The Strait of Messina, where narrowest, is not quite two miles in width. It can be easily crossed in barges, and, with the resources at our command, a bridge might easily be thrown across it, similar enterprises...
Italy - The Aeolian Or Liparic Islands
THE AEolian or Liparic Islands though separated from Sicily by a strait more than 300 fathoms in depth, may nevertheless be looked upon as a dependency of the larger island. Some of these volcanic islands, born in the shadow of Mount Etna, lie on a line connecting that volcano with Mount Vesuvius, and they originated probably during the same convulsion of nature.
Italy - The Aegadian Islands
OFF the western extremity of Sicily lie shallows, sand-banks, and calcareous islands of the same composition as the adjoining mainland. These are the. AEgades, or Goat Islands, named after the animals which climb their steep escarpments. Favignana, near which the Romans won the naval victory which terminated the first Punic war, is the largest of these islands.
Italy - Malta And Gozzo
MALTA, though a political dependency of Great Britain, belongs geographically to Italy, for it rises from the same submarine plateau as Sicily. About fifty miles to the east of the island the depth of the sea exceeds 1,500 fathoms, but in the north, in the direction of Sicily, it hardly amounts to eighty, and there can be no doubt that an isthmus formerly united Malta to continental Europe.
Italy - Sardinia
IT is a curious fact that an island so fertile as Sardinia, so rich in metals, and so favourably situated in the centre of the Tyrrhenian Sea, should have lagged behind in the race of progress as it has. When the Carthaginians held that island its population was certainly more numerous than it is now, and the fearful massacres placed on record by the historians of Rome testify to this fact...
Italy - Present And Future
No impartial spectator can deny that Italy, since it has again taken its place among the nations of Europe, promises great things for the future. Even its political regeneration has brought to the surface men of the highest intellect, courage, zeal, and public spirit. There are some amongst them whom posterity will look upon as a credit to all mankind.
Italy - Government And Administration
ThE charter promulgated in March, 1848, declares the old kingdom of Sardinia to be an hereditary constitutional monarchy. It has gradually been extended to the other portions of the peninsula. Like most similar documents, it guarantees equality before the law, personal liberty, and inviolability of the domicile.
Italy - Corsica
CORSICA, with Sardinia, forms a world apart. At a remote epoch these two islands were but one, and it is curious to find that Corsica, which politically now forms part of France, is geographically as well as historically much more Italian than its sister island. A glance at a map is sufficient to convince us that Corsica is a dependency of Italy...
Spain - General Aspects
THE Iberian peninsula, Spain and Portugal, must be looked upon geographically as one. Differences of soil, climate, and language may have justified its division into two states, but in the organism of Europe these two constitute but a single member, having the same geological history, and exhibiting unity in their physical configuration.
Spain - The Castiles, Leon, And Estremadura
THE great central plateau of the peninsula is bounded on the north, east, and south by ranges of mountains extending from the Cantal rian Pyrenees to the Sierra Morena, and slopes down in the west towards Portugal and the Atlantic. The uplands through which the Upper Duero, the Tajo (Tagus), and the Guadiana take their course are thus a region apart, and if the waters of the ocean were to rise...
Spain - Andalusia
ANDALUSIA a embraces the whole of the basin of the Guadalquivir, together with some adjoining districts. It is bounded in the north by the Sierra Morena, which in the direction of Portugal becomes a rugged mountain district of crystalline formation intersected by tortuous ravines, and rising in the Sierra de Aracena, north of the mining region of the Rio Tinto, to a height of 5,500 feet.
Spain - The Mediterranean Slope Of The Great Plateau
MURCIA AND VALENCIAIN a few hours we al e able to travel from the inhospitable plateaux to the hot valleys and plains of Murcia and Valencia debouching upon the Mediterranean.The spurs from the Sierra Nevada, which approach the coast to the north of the Cabo de Gata, are separated by ramblas, or torrent beds, and gradually decrease in height as we proceed north.
Spain - The Balearic Islands
THE Balearic Islands are attached to the mainland of Spain by a submarine plateau, and are geographically as well as historically a dependency of Valencia and Catalonia. The ranges of hills traversing these islands have the same direction as those of Murcia and Valencia.
Spain - The Valley Of The Ebro, Aragon And Catalonia
THE central portion of the valley of the Ebro is as distinctly separated from the remainder of Spain as is that of the Guadalquivir. It forms a vast depression, bounded by the midland platen' of Spain and the Pyrenees, and if the waters of the Mediterranean were to rise 1,000 feet, this ancient lake, which existed until its pent-up waters had forced themselves a passage through the mountains...
Spain - Basque Provience, Navarra And Logrono
THE Basque provinces (Vascungadas) and the ancient kingdom of Navarra, though scarcely a thirtieth part of Spain, constitute a separate region, not only on account of geographical position, but also because they are inhabited for the most part by a distinct race, having its on language, manners, and political institutions.Looked at from a commanding position, the bills connecting the Pyrenees with the Castilian plateau resemble a sea lashed by contrary winds, for there are no prominent mountain ranges.
Spain - Santander, The Asturias And Galicia
THE Atlantic slope of the Cantabrian Pyrenees is a region completely distinct from the rest of Spain. Mountains, hills, valleys, and running waters succeed each other in infinite variety, and the coast throughout is steep, with bold promontories and deep inlets, into which flow rapid torrents. The climate is moist and salubrious. The Celto-Iberian inhabitants of the country have in most instances...
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