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The First Division In France - The Battle Of Neuve Chapelle
March 10th was the day set for a big battle framed up to take place on the Canadians' right, opposite the village of Neuve Chapelle. A few weeks earlier General Joffre, the French commander, had inaugurated in the Champagne country a system of 'nibbling' at the enemy's line. 'Nibbling' meant massing guns and troops opposite a special point in the enemy's line ; then, fixing an objective, that...
The First Division In France - In The Ypres Salient
After the Battle of Neuve Chapelle the Canadians were marched to Estaires, where they spent some time in rest billets. Here they were trained daily in trench fighting, with the expectation that they would again go into action about Neuve Chapelle. While they were at Estaires they had their first sight of a Zeppelin observation balloon, from which German observers were spying out the country in the...
The Second Battle Of Ypres - Gravenstafel Ridge
ON the afternoon of Thursday, April 22nd, 1915, two battalions of the 2nd Canadian Brigade facing north-easterly were holding the Gravenstafel Ridge. Two companies of the 5th Battalion were on the right. At that time known as Tuxford's Dandies, the 5th were a blending of hard-riding contingents from the mounted regiments of the Canadian West.
The Second Battle Of Ypres - The Highland Spear-head
On Thursday, April 22nd, the 15th Battalion, as we have seen, were holding the line to the left of the 8th. On their own left the 13th continued the line to where it joined the Algerian division of the French. To the 13th was entrusted the responsibility for the main road which runs through Poelcapelle and St. Julien to Ypres. Of all the Canadian battalions in the Ypres salient these two...
The Second Battle Of Ypres - A Gate Four Miles Wide
But however stubbornly the two Highland battalions might hold their impossible salient and however skilfully and steadily the 13th and the Buffs might effect the re-formation of the line and extend towards St. Julien, there remained a four-mile gap to the Yser Canal. This was not the case of a line bent or cracked or even broken...
The Second Battle Of Ypres - The Anabasis Of The Mad Fourth And The Fighting First
On the afternoon of April 22nd, 1915, the 4th and the 1st Battalions as part of the 1st Brigade were luxuriating in their quarters as Army Reserve. They had marched the day before along a stone-block road through Poperinghe and towards the sound of the guns at Ypres. The 4th were comfortably billeted in Vlamertinghe and the 1st occupied a hut cantonment about a thousand yards down the road...
The Second Battle Of Ypres - The Capture Of St. Julien
The actual taking of St. Julien has been as obscure as the name of the village has been famous. In the village itself, up to about 5 p. m. on Thursday, April 22nd, were the battalion headquarters of Lieut.-Colonel Loomis of the 13th and of Lieut.-Colonel Currie of the 15th on opposite sides of the Poelcapelle road; and one company each of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Battalions.
The Second Battle Of Ypres - The Companies That Kept Touch
On Thursday evening, April 22nd, the 2nd and 3rd Battalions 1 had been summoned to divisional head-quarters at Brielen and then proceeded on a night march across the canal and reached the vicinity of the St. Julien road near Wieltje, when their commanders reported to General Turner at the 3rd Brigade head-quarters.
The Second Battle Of Ypres - How The 2nd Battalion Got Other Messages Besides Their Mail
'If the good people at home who make up packages of things that soldiers like could see their parcels being distributed and the pleasure their far-brought kindness carries with it when the bugle sounds' Letter from lazy Mary, Letter for lousy Lou, 'they would never doubt that the socks, cigarettes, cakes, maple sugar, and sundry other tokens of practical remembrance make glad the heart of the boy overseas.
The Second Battle Of Ypres - The Canadian Gunners
During the years before the war no class of officers in Canada's neglected militia were more enthusiastic and study-sharp than the artillery. This was perhaps due to the intricate fascination of their branch of the art of war. An infantryman was apt to limit his tactical studies to a few set forms of attack and defence and then concentrate the energies of his leisure time either on close-order...
Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry - February 28th To November 27th, 1915
IMMEDIATELY after the audacious assault upon the 23rd Bavarians, on February 28th, 1915,1 the enemy began a bombardment of the position held by the Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry with heavy artillery, the usual preliminary to a counter-attack. However, the German commander was evidently not strong enough in either men or guns to make an effective reprisal and only No. 3 Company of the...
Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry - Further Account Of The Work Of The P. P. C. L. I. In The Ypres Salient
There were some other Canadians present in the Ypres salient while the Canadian division was being ground fine - some hardly assimilated Canadians, not militia bred but mostly reservists of the British Army. They were recruited, as we have seen, in a battalion named after a royal and fair lady, the Princess Patricia.Why they were called light infantry is one of the mysteries.
Battle Of Festubert
IN the early part of May, 1915, while the British were still disputing ground yard by yard in the now protracted contest for Ypres, the French were beginning an operation of terrific violence. The scene of this activity was ground that two years later became to many Canadian soldiers as familiar as the streets of their native towns and villages. For who among the Canadian corps in 1917 was not...
The Fight At Givenchy
SINCE landing in France the 1st Division had taken part in the three important battles fought by the British in the spring of 1915. At Neuve Chapelle it had been subjected to heavy fire, but had played a minor part, merely keeping a large German force along its front occupied, thus preventing substantial reinforcements being rushed from this quarter to assist the main body of the enemy...
Formation Of The 2nd And 3rd Divisions
IN February, 1915, when the 1st Division was moving up to take its place in the battle-line in Flanders, preparations were under way for a substantial reinforcing base in England. The nucleus of this base, under the command of Colonel W. R. W. James, an Imperial army officer of long service and a former governor of St. Helena, was at Tidworth, on the borders of Salisbury Plain...
From Givenchy To St. Eloi
THE most notable event in Canada's war history between Givenchy and St. Eloi was the coming over of the 2nd Division and the formation of a Canadian corps at the front. It had been a question as to whether the making of another division would not endanger the sending over of reinforcements, but the splendid response that Canada made in recruiting, following the Second Battle of Ypres....
Holding The Salient, 1916 - The Fighting At St. Eloi
TYpres, in those gruelling April days of 1915, Canada's soldiers gained their golden spursand won fame throughout the Allied armies. After Ypres came Festubert and Givenchy, with hard fighting, but no major operations, in which the men from the Dominion found out the value of machine guns and considerably increased this part of their organization, although the scheme was frowned upon by the Imperial command.
Holding The Salient, 1916 - The Battle Of Sanctuary Wood
Again the trend of the fighting moved slightly north. Directly south of Hooge is Zouave Wood, and ahead of that, towards the enemy's line, joined to it by a narrow neck of splintered trees, is Sanctuary Wood. It stretches southward to the slopes of Observatory Ridge, at this time almost all in German possession. The ridge divides it from Armagh Wood and Mount Sorrel.
Holding The Salient, 1916 - The Battle At The Knoll Of Hooge
The position was holding, and the Corps Commander, far from being discouraged, was planning an even greater counter-attack. But the German Command, also, was not idle, and on the night of June 6th the enemy again launched a violent attack, shifting still northward, this time at Hooge, the little village on the Menin road which the Germans regarded as a vital position that kept them from breaking...
Trench Raids
AS we have seen, one of the features of the fighting in which the Canadians took part in 191 was the development of the trench raid, in-vented and perfected by the men from the Dominion, adopted by the Imperials as a regular part of trench warfare, and even copied with a varied amount of success by the Germans themselves. The raids gradually grew in magnitude until sometimes they appeared to be...
The Canadian Indians And The Great World War
NOTHING in the war has more genuine interest than the action of the Canadian Indians in energetically espousing the cause of Great Britain and her Allies and spontaneously enlisting in the Expeditionary Force. The proportion of Indians in the force was small, but the power of their example was strong, and, as individual Canadians, they did not weaken the strength of our offensive, and even added...
The Canadians On Garrison Duty
DURING the war between the Allies and the Central Powers Canada was called upon to furnish garrisons for the Bermudas and the island of St. Lucia in order that the Imperial troops which had been stationed there might be relieved for service in the actual theatre of war. Three Canadian battalions, in turn, did duty in Bermuda, - the Royal Canadian Regiment of Halifax, the 38th Battalion of Ottawa...
Food Control
WHEN the war broke out in 1914, Germany, with her usual thoroughness, and as part of the campaign, had a carefully thought out programme of food control in readiness, and an organization, nation-wide in extent, was immediately. set on foot. German economists had been at work on the problem for some years, in fact, and they had evolved what was supposed by them to be the most scientific system of...
Fuel Control
THE control of the supply of fuel was one of the war problems, and, indeed, it continued to be an after-the-war problem. There was the promise of a shortage of coal in 1916; that is, there were preliminary symptoms of what about the beginning of the New Year of 1918 became a coal crisis. It arose out of two conditions that belonged to the whole of North America, and particularly to the United States...
Chronological Account Of The Great World War - 1915
Jan. 1.—British battleship Formidable sunk by a submarine in the English Channel.Jan. 2.-Dar-es-Salaam, German fort in East Africa, bombarded by British.Jan. 3.—Capture of Steinbach, Alsace, by the French. Turks defeated by the Russians near Ardahan.Jan. 4.—The Hamburg-American liner Dacia is admitted to United States Register. Jan. 5.—Heavy fighting in Alsace.Jan. 6.—Germans reach the Sucha river, Poland; capture of Kimpolung, by the Russians.
Introduction
IT will be very reasonably asked why I should consent, though upon a sort of challenge, to write even a popular essay in English history, who make no pretence to particular scholarship and am merely a member of the public.
Province Of Britain
THE land on which we live once had the highly poetic privilege of being the end of the world. Its extremity was ultima Thule, the other end of nowhere. When these islands, lost in a night of northern seas, were lit up at last by the long searchlights of Rome, it was felt that the remotest remnant of things had been touched ; and more for pride than possession.
The Age Of Legends
WE should be startled if we were quietly reading a prosaic modern novel, and somewhere in the middle it turned without warning into a fairy tale. We should be surprised if one of the spinsters in Cranford, after tidily sweeping the room with a broom, were to fly away on a broomstick.
Defeat Of The Barbarians
IT is a quaint accident that we employ the word short-sighted as a condemnation ; but not the word long-sighted, which we should probably use, if at all, as a compliment. Yet the one is as much a malady of vision as the other. We rightly say, in rebuke of a small-minded modernity, that it is very short-sighted to be indifferent to all that is historic.
St. Edward And The Norman Kings
THE reader may be surprised at the disproportionate importance given to the name which stands first in the title of this chapter. I put it there as the best way of emphasizing, at the beginning of what we may call the practical part of our history, an elusive and rather strange thing.
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