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Elizabeth Petrovna, 1741-1762
ON December 6, 1741, La Chetardie wrote to Amelot, the French Minister for Foreign Affairs, as to the prospects of a coup-d'état in favour of the Tsesarevna Elizabeth : 'An outbreak, the success of which can never be morally certain, especially now that the Swedes are not in a position to lend a hand, would, prudently considered, be very difficult to bring about, unless it could be substantially...
Finis Poloniae, 1733-1794
WHILE Russia had thus become a great Empire, with a dominant voice in the European concert, Poland had almost ceased to exist politically. The thirty years of the reign of Augustus III (1733-1763) were a period of sheer stagnation. There was no government to speak of. The King rarely visited his kingdom ; and his chief minister Heinrich Brühl, omnipotent in Saxony, was powerless in Poland.
Catherine II, 1762-1796
So enormous were the gains of Catherine II from the partition of Poland, that all her other acquisitions fade into insignificance by comparison. Yet, as we have seen, a partition of Poland did not originally enter into her calculations ; it was forced upon her from without, and was as much due to fortuitous circumstances as anything in politics can well be.
Two Stones In A Square
WHEN I had for the first time crossed St. George's Channel, and for the first time stepped out of a Dublin hotel on to St Stephen's Green, the first of all my impressions was that of a particular statue, or rather portion of a statue.
The Root Of Reality
THE only excuse of literature is to make things new; and the chief misfortune of journalism is that it has to make them old. What is hurried has to be hackneyed.
The Family And The Feud
THERE was an old joke of my childhood, to the effect that men might be grouped together with reference to their Christian names. I have forgotten the cases then under consideration; but contemporary examples would be sufficiently suggestive today.
The Paradox Of Labour
MY first general and visual impression of the green island was that it was not green but brown ; that it was positively brown with khaki. This is one of those experiences that cannot be confused with expectations; the sort of small thing that is seen but not foreseen in the verbal visions of books and newspapers.
The Englishman In Ireland
WITH no desire to decorate my travels with too tall a traveller's tale, I must record the fact that I found one point upon which all Irishmen were agreed. It was the fact that, for some reason or other, there. had been a very hopeful beginning of Irish volunteering at the beginning of the war; and that, for some reason or other, this had failed in the course of the war.
The Mistake Of England
I MET one hearty Unionist, not to say Coercionist in Ireland, in such a manner as to talk to him at some length; one quite genial and genuine Irish gentleman, who was solidly on the side of the system of British government in Ireland.
The Mistake Of Ireland
THERE is one phrase which certain Irishmen sometimes use in conversation, which indicates the real mistake that they sometimes make in controversy.
An Example And A Question
WE all had occasion to rejoice at the return of Sherlock Holmes when he was supposed to be dead; and I presume we may soon rejoice in his return even when he is really dead.
Belfast And The Religious Problem
Its lucidity is not only superhuman, but it is sometimes in the true sense inhuman. Its intellectual clarity cannot resist the temptation to intellectual cruelty. If I had to sum up in a sentence the one fault really to he found with the Irish, I could do it simply enough.
Meaning Of Money
THE meaning of Money is not a question of economic theory. The object of this volume is to explain a matter of plain, positive, practical fact, which is very important, very dull and very little understood ; and to do so as clearly as may be, and with the least possible use of the alarming apparatus which generally affrights the casual reader who opens a book on a monetary subject.
Coined Cash
THE most obvious of the forms of cash is the coined currency that we carry in our pockets, consisting of gold, silver, and bronze discs, stamped with the image and superscription of the king, and milled round the edges to prevent enterprising bullionists from shaving metal off their rims.
Paper Cash
THE exchange of a hat for a sovereign is a quite commonplace proceeding, but when we begin toexchange a hat for a piece of paper, which is only accepted because it is believed to be convertible into gold, the element of belief, that is to say of credit, enters into the transaction, and we have moved up a step on the ladder of economic civilization.
Money - Bill Of Exchange
HAVING reviewed the various forms of cash, or money here and now, for which goods and servicesare habitually exchanged, and for which the money market exchanges money some day or moneysomewhere else, we proceed to the bill of exchange, a versatile credit instrument which is often all these three forms of money in the course of its career.
London - The World's Monetary Clearing House
So far money has been dealt with chiefly as a matter of internal experience, and from the point of view of the relations between the Englishman and his banker.
Cheque Paying Banks
WE have now considered the various forms of cash money, and the process of the manufacture of the money, or right to draw a cheque, which is dealt in by lenders and borrowers in the money market.
Money - Bill Brokers And Discount Houses
WE have seen that the main functions in the manufacture of credit and currency are performed by the cheque-paying banks, and we have now to examine the operations of several minor but importantsubsidiaries, which the specializing tendency of civilization has called into being.
Money - Accepting Houses And Foreign Banks
IT ought by this time to be clear, unless the proportion of the perspicuity of this work to its tediousness has been most lamentably inadequate, that what we call money generally means credits with a bank, and that most of these are created either out of loans made by the bank or by some other bank, or by the discounting of a bill, which is only a special form of loan.
Money - The Foreign Exchanges
THE foreign exchanges are really a fairly simple matter if we keep them free, as far as possible, from the technicalities which are the delight of experts in the subject, who generally expound it. They were exemplified in Chapter V by the purchase of a postal order, and they may be described as the mechanism by which money here is exchanged for money somewhere else.
Bank Of England
EVERY schoolboy knows, and most grown-up people have consequently forgotten, that the Bank ofEngland was founded in 1694 to finance William III.'s Government. Since its foundation it has been the keeper of the national balance and the channel through which the nation has conducted its financial operations.
Bank Rate And Market Rate
BANK rate is the official minimum rate at which the Bank of England will discount bills.
The Bank Return
THE account issued every Thursday by the Bank of England, giving a statement of its position, is generally regarded as the key to the condition of the London money market as a whole and is so awaited and examined with keen interest.
Gold Reserve
HAVING thus completed our inspection of the main wheels in the monetary machine, and arrived at anecessarily rough and elementary notion of the manner in which they work together and reactupon one another, we are in a position to consider the problem that has for many years exercised the banking world, namely, the alleged inadequacy of the metallic basis on which the monetarymachine manufactures credit, and the measures necessary for reinforcing it.
Money - Other Reserves
IT has been necessary to lay a good deal of stress on the necessity for an adequate proportion of gold among the assets held by bankers against the credits that they create for their customers, because in times of crisis gold is the only commodity that is of universal acceptance, because it is the essence of the English banking system that all demands are payable immediately in gold...
Meaning Of Money - Summary And Conclusion
AFTER long ramble through rough country, it is perhaps worth while to review and sum up the conclusions arrived at in its course.
Canada in the Great World War - Introductory
THE German High Command during the first months of the Great World War had three main purposes in view - the capture of Paris, the seizure of the Channel ports, and the utter destruction of the French and British military forces in France. The capture of Paris would have enabled the Central Powers to levy an enormous tax on France ; would have supplied them with a vast amount of material necessary...
The First Division In France - The Arrival
THE 1st Canadian Division sailed from Eng.. land on February 11th, 1915, and after a tempestuous voyage landed at St. Nazaire, on the west coast of France, on February 14th. The troops were hurried to Flanders and, on the 24th, after a few days' rest, went into action in the trenches near Armentières.The arrival of the Canadians in France will always be regarded as marking an epoch in the history of the world.
The First Division In France - At The Front

Now that the war zone has been reached, it will not be amiss to sketch what had so far happened in Flanders since the outbreak of hostilities ; for with that theatre of operations, for many weary, tragic months were to be linked up the fortunes of the gallant 1st Canadian Division. Little did the brave men from the West then dream that they were to remain there longer than a few months.

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