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Toronto To Thunder Bay
The progress of Ontario cannot be more marked anywhere than by one who on this road passes rising towns and well-tilled fields where late the forest waved untouched. We reach Owen Sound by 10 p. m., but find that the vessel is not yet come to hand. A load of Mennonites to Duluth took an extra day, so we have a few hours to see the fine harbour, the mountain, and good folk of 'the Sound.'
Thunder Bay To Red River
A PLEASANT sail of eighteen hours in the Manitoba, an excellent vessel of the Sarnia line, brings us in sight of this little city, at the western end of Lake Superior, and creeping up the stony and almost treeless hill that rises behind. It is a straggling town, that grew too fast, where the town-lot fever struck deep and had many victims.
Down The Red River
MOORHEAD is on the Minnesota, and Fargo on the Dakota or west side of the Red River of the North. They are straggling villages. The latter is a seat of law, with large court-house and gaol ; Dakota is not yet organized as a State, but is a territory under Federal control. The prairie extends on all sides, and through it, between the two towns, and dividing State and Territory, flows the dull...
Winnipeg
THE Old Fort faces the Assiniboine just before its junction with the Red River. We are under the shadow of high stone walls, seamed with cracks, and evidently of no modern origin. They form a rectangle of five hundred and ten feet in breadth, and six hundred feet long. A gateway opens in the middle of the wall facing the Assiniboine ; through this we see a grass plot...
Geographical Position Of Manitoba
THE Province of Manitoba was established on the 23rd of June, 1870, by order of the then Governor-General, Lord Lisgar, in Council, under authority of the Act of the Dominion Parliament passed 12th May, 1870. It lies in the middle of the North American continent, nearly equally distant from the Pole and Equator, and Atlantic and Pacific.
Indians
WHEN the famous bargain was made, in 1870, between the Imperial and Canadian Governments and the Hudson Bay Company, which, in so far as that corporation's questionable title was concerned, added three millions of square miles to the area of the Dominion, it was not an estate without incumbrance that we got.
Government And Civil Institutions
BY the Dominion Act, 3:3 Vic. c. 3, under which the Province was carved out of Rupert's Land and the North West Territory, provision was made for the establishment of its government, as also for that of the part of the territory not included within the limits of the Province. Manitoba was given a representation in the Canadian Senate of two members.
Climate
Between the Laurentian highlands in the east and the Rocky Mountains a great summer wave of warmth passes far to the north, reaching the highest latitude near the eastern base of the latter range ; while in winter a compensating and long continued flood of cold air invades the whole region of the plains and the eastern and western flanking ranges.
Manufactures, Labour, Trade And Markets
THERE are several steam flour mills in the neighbourhood of Winnipeg, and within its limits, one woollen factory, three saw mills, and two sash and planing factories. The most extensive of the lumber establishments are those of Messrs. McCaulay & Jarvis, which were at work day and night and capable of turning out 50,000 feet in the twenty-four hours.
The Grasshopper Plague : Its History And Incidents
EVERYWHERE we saw traces and heard sad tales of the grasshoppers. Many of the farmers let their fields lie waste rather than plant for them to eat as they had done for two years. In the gardens of Government House and of the Penitentiary, in the old fields at Kildonan and along the banks of both rivers we saw the effects of the ravages.
From The Old To The Stone Fort
THROUGH the kindness of Mr. John Rowan, engineer in charge of the C. P. R. construction here, I enjoyed, behind his fine bays, a visit on the 18th of August to several places of interest. Our way was along the west side of the Red River northerly. Leaving the new market bridge, we drove on Main street for half a mile between rows of neat frame houses, past the Wolseley House...
The Hudson Bay Company
THE chronicles of the fur trade in the Northwest are divided into four periods. First, From the Treaty of Utrecht in 1714 to 1763, in the hands of the French ; Second, From 1563 to 1821, when the Canadian and the English companies held joint and rival sway ; Third, From 1821, when the companies united, until 1870, when the Northwest became part of the Dominion ; Fourth, The present period, in which the company's trade in land and goods will equal or exceed its fur trade, the last having ceased to be a monopoly.
Across The Prairie
OUR trip down the Red River has been told, and we have made the reader acquainted, to some extent, with the Dawson Route. It remains to tell of the stage road from the Prairie capital to the American Northern Pacific. This is the only means of access from the south-east during the cold season, and will, till railway communication be completed, be of manifest importance.
The Pembina Branch
OUR course has been along the Dakota or western side of the river. The railway is to run on the other side. As to its prospects, a few words : A branch of the St. Paul and North Pacific Railway already runs from Glyndon to the Red Lake river at Crookston. The directors of this road have agreed to recommend its immediate completion to Pembina, on the border.
Introductory
FROM the vague indications of the ancient lyetopisi, or Slavonic chronicles, it would seem that, about the middle of the ninth century, what is now, roughly speaking, Russia, was then divided between two races, a north-western race paying a tribute of pelts to the Varangians or Northmen, and a south-eastern race paying a similar tribute to the Kozars or Chazars, a mixed race, living in tent-waggon...
Casimir IV, 1447-1492
THE sudden death of Wladislaus III on the field of Varna (Nov. 1444) had, at first, a paralysing effect on the more northerly of his two kingdoms. The last letter which the Polish Senate despatched to the heroic young King (he was but twenty when he fell), and which never reached him, was full of warnings, entreaties and even threats. If, it declared, he did not return instantly...
Ivan III And The Sons Of Casimir, 1462-1506
IT was as the fortunate inheritor of the fruits of the labours of generations of careful ancestors that Ivan III ascended the grand ducal throne of Moscovy in 1462, in his 23rd year. Roughly speaking, the Grand Duchy proper then embraced the very centre of modern European Russia, with off-shoots extending northwards as far as Lake Byelo and Ustyug on the Sukhona.
The Rehabilitation Of Poland Under Sigismund I, 1506--1548
By his last will, King Alexander had bequeathed his patrimony to his younger brother Sigismund, who put himself in possession thereof without a moment's delay. Ten days after the obsequies of Alexander, Sigismund, who on receiving tidings of his brother's dangerous illness had posted from Glogau to Wilna, was unanimously elected Grand Duke of Lithuania.
The Last Of The Jagiellos, 1548-1572
ON April 17, 1548, the magnates and prelates of Lithuania assembled at the castle of Wilna to kiss the hand of their new Grand Duke, Sigismund Augustus, on the eve of his departure to Cracow, to bury his father and receive his father's Crown from the hands of the Polish Pans who had elected him King eighteen years previously.
The First Elective Kings, 1572-1588
THE death of Sigismund II, though long foreseen, came upon Poland unexpectedly, and at an inconvenient and even dangerous moment. Of foreign complications there was happily no fear. The Grand Turk had not yet recovered from the shock of Lepanto (Oct. 7, 1571); and Ivan IV, with a view to obtaining the Polish Crown cheaply, by fair means, had, but recently, concluded a truce with the Polish Government...
Ivan IV, Called The Terrible, 1534-1584
WE have seen how the Jagiellos laid the foundation of the Polish Monarchy; we have also seen how that monarchy was arrested in its development, and diverted from its purpose, by the centrifugal tendencies of a jealous and undisciplined aristocracy. In Moscovy, meanwhile, the principles of monarchy were gaining steadily in strength.
Sigismund III And The Republic, 1588-1632
THE Jagiellos, after two centuries of almost sisyphean labour, had at last succeeded in welding together, out of the most unpromising and rebellious materials, a new great Power, the Rzeszpospolita, or Polish Commonwealth. This great Power was exposed from the first to peculiar perils, both external and internal.
Boris Godunov And The Pseudo-Demetriuses, 1584-1613
THE death of Ivan IV left Moscovy in much the same position as it had been on the death of his father : in both cases a Regency was necessary, but, in the present instance, the regency had to be permanent ; for Theodore, the eldest surviving son of Ivan by Anastasia Romanov, was scarce able to walk, or speak, or indeed do anything but smile unceasingly at the orb and sceptre placed in his hands on...
The First Romanovs And Wladislaus IV, 1613-1648
THE possibility of such an election as that of Michael Romanov was an even more remarkable and encouraging fact than the election itself. It was the symptom of awakening public spirit, the presage of a better order of things. The Moscovites had risen superior to all personal and local considerations, and, after purging the capital of foreign foes, had placed themselves...
John Casimir And The Cossacks, 1648-1669
AT the end of May 1648, the news of a terrible disaster in the Ukraine reached the Polish capital. Stephen Potocki, with the Polish advance guard of 4000 men, was attacked on the banks of the river Zheltuiya Vodui by Chmielnicki's countless Cossack and Tatar hordes ; and, after a stubborn three days resistance (May 16, 1819), his little army was annihilated.
The Age Of Sobieski, 1669-1696
THE abdication of John Casimir once-more exposed Poland to all the inconveniences of 'a free election.' For nearly a century the throne had been quasi-hereditary in the Vasa-Jagiello family, for no one had seriously disputed the right of the next heir to succeed Sigismund III and Wladislaus IV.
The Precursors Of Peter The Great, 1649-1689
WHILE Poland had sunk beyond the possibility of recovery, Moscovy, slowly and circuitously, with many a serious hitch and many a ruinous relapse, was creeping forward along the path leading to prosperity and empire. Contemporaries could not be expected to see this. The victories of Sobieski had invested the Polish chivalry with a prestige which it was far from deserving...
Peter The Great, 1689-1725
PETER Aleksyeevich was born on May 30, 1672. In all respects he was a singularly backward child. He was two and a half before he was weaned, and in his 11th year we find him still playing with wooden horses, and struggling with the difficulties of Russian etymology. After 1680 the lad had no regular tutor.
Peter The Great, 1689-1725
THE strong and terrible reforming Tsar had triumphed over every obstacle, triumphed so thoroughly that any interruption of his work during his lifetime was inconceivable. But the thought 'Will my work survive me?' haunted him persistently. Peter's anxiety was reasonable. His health was uncertain ; his half-taught pupils were few and divided ; the reactionaries were many and of one mind...
The Pupils Of Peter, 1725-1741
As soon as the Empress-Consort Catherine had recognised that the malady of the Emperor must end fatally, she had secretly instructed Menshikov and Tolstoi to sound the other senators as to the succession to the throne, and to take measures on her behalf generally. It was not so muchpersonal ambition as the, instinct of self-preservation which made her look to these men for help at this crisis.
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