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Methods And Benefits Of Our Cooperative Association
Then another reason why a better grade of apples has been put up of late is that we have inspectors and packers who see to it that a better grade of fruit is packed. Much has been said about junk pack—a good deal has been said about this by the retailers and in many instances the retailers themselves are to blame for this. This is particularly so in regard to grapes, but what we are seeking for is to raise the standard all along the line and uphold it and in this way establish a reputation for a good pack of superior fruit, which will bring us repeat orders from year to year.
Soil Analysis From A Chemist's Standpoint
There exists today two distinct views of the soil. The one considers the soil simply as a place in which plants may grow and from which they receive their food. In this view of the soil the supply of plant-food, available for plant use is considered as fixed for any given soil and that its productive capacity is entirely governed, under good farm practice, by the amount of plant-food contained in the first few inches of the surface soil and the demands made upon this supply by the crops grown.
Varieties Of Fruit
The question seems to be divided—there are about as many hands for one side as the other. Personally I think the Northern Spy is the best apple there is, although it is rather hard to keep. Out of fifty thou-sand barrels, if you get four or five thousand that are prime you will do pretty well. We can sell that apple for more money than other apples.
Lessons From Western Apple Growers
The average farmer is not a good business man. That is a harsh statement, but we may as well face it and make the most of it. If we ever take a look at our competitors it is to become jealous of their successes or to gloat over their failures, rather than to study their methods so as to adopt what brings success or avoid the plans which lead to defeat.It is reported that within two years the Pacific Coast will have over 15,000,000 bearing apple trees.
General Treatment For Apple Orchards
In the winter or early spring, inspect the trees for San Jose, scurfy or oyster-shell scale. (Send twigs and strips of bark to the Experiment Station, if you cannot identify the scale yourself.)These scale insects, especially the San Jose scale, must be destroyed promptly or they will kill the trees. JUST BEFORE THE BUDS OPEN, if the scale be present, spray with the strong lime-sulphur wash. To be successful, the work must be done very thoroughly—this means that every part of the tree must be covered with the spray.
General Treatment For Peaches
Inspect for scale insects, the same as for apple, and spray with strong lime-sulphur wash the same as directed for apple trees.If this spraying is made, it will also prevent the leaf-curl disease. If the lime-sulphur spraying is not required, a spraying must be made to prevent the leaf curl which is often especially serious on Elbertas. For this spraying, use Bordeaux mixture or the copper sulphate solution (2 pounds of copper sulphate dissolved in fifty gallons of water).
General Treatment For Pears
Inspect for scale insects and if present, spray before the buds start with strong lime-sulphur. The Pear Blister Mite (a mite that causes thickened red and brown spots on the leaves) and the Pear Psylla may also be partially controlled by this spraying for scale. If these pests were serious last year, make the strong lime-sulphur spraying even if not needed for the San Jose scale.
General Treatment For Plums
Plum trees may be infested with the San Jose or by the European fruit scale. The treatment for them is the same as recommended for scale on apples. JUST BEFORE THE BUDS SWELL, spray with the dilute lime sulphur (orthe Bordeaux mixture) and arsenate of lead, 2½ to 3 lbs. to a barrel. This is to prevent leaf-spot, fruit rot, black knot and curculio.Arsenate of lead is preferable to Paris green on all stone fruits, owing to tenderness of foliage in such fruits.
General Treatment For Cherries
Cherry trees may be infested with San Jose scale. If found, the treatment is the same as that recommended for the apple.JUST BEFORE THE BLOSSOMS OPEN, spray with dilute lime-sulphur, or Bordeaux mixture. This is to prevent the rot and leaf spot troubles.Especially valuable on the English Morellos for the latter. Our experiments the last two seasons indicate that the dilute lime-sulphur is just as satisfactory as the Bordeaux for cherries and either is better than the self-boiled lime-sulphur.
General Treatment For Grapes
Grape vines are not often subject to attacks by scale insects so there is seldom need for a spraying with strong lime-sulphur before growth starts. Do not use the dilute lime-sulphur at any time for grape spraying. It stunts or checks the growth of the berries. Use the Bordeaux mixture. DOWNY MILDEW commonly called 'Red Grape' was very destructive last season and caused large financial losses to growers who did not spray.
General Treatment For Currants And Gooseberries
San Jose and European fruit scale are often found upon these bushes. Inspect carefully for them. If found, spray before growth starts with strong lime-sulphur. JUST AS THE LEAVES ARE EXPANDING, spray with dilute lime-sulphur orBordeaux and two pounds of arsenate of lead to every fifty gallons. REPEAT this spraying when the fruit is about one-fourth grown. If worms trouble after this, use pyrethrum or hellebore.
General Treatment For Raspberries, Blackberries And Dewberries
CUT OUT THE FRUIT BEARING canes after the last picking has been made. This will lessen insect and disease troubles that may be harbored on the old canes and allow more room for the growth of the new canes.ORANGE RUST may appear in May or June. It is easily identified by the bright orange color on the under side of the leaves. There is no method of preventing this trouble. As soon as it is found, the bush should be dug out and burned. If allowed to remain the disease will spread and destroy many plants.
General Treatment For Strawberries
Examine the young plants before setting them. Pick off all discolored or diseased leaves. If root lice are suspected, dip the roots in strong tobacco water.After the growth starts, spray with Bordeaux and a poison to prevent the leaf spot and to destroy the leaf-roller insect that may be present.For fruiting plantations, spray with Bordeaux before blossoming and repeat ten days to two weeks later.
General Treatment For Potatoes
FOR THE POTATO SCAB. Soak the uncut tubers for two hours in 30 gallons of water and one pint of formalin (can be secured of any drug-gist). This solution can be used several times. Do not put treated tubers back into crates or bags that held scabby potatoes. Make the treatment only a few days before planting if possible. Do not plant upon land that has recently grown crops of scabby potatoes...
Preparation Of Spray Mixtures
Strong lime-sulphur to be used on dormant trees or bushes for scale insects, can be prepared in three ways : By the old formula, By reducing with water 'the home-made' concentrated wash. By reducing with water the 'commercial' concentrated wash.The 'Old formula' has been used for many years with good results and is very satisfactory.
Poisons Used In Spraying
This poison is used very extensively. It can be secured for reason-able price, is ready to use at any time, does not easily injure the foliage and is the only poison that can be safely used in the lime-sulphur sprays.Injury to tender foliage like the peach has occasionally occurred by spraying with arsenate of lead and water when the foliage was moist from dew or rain.
Contact Insecticides
Place two gallons of ordinary kerosene in a warm place, either in a warm room or in the sun, and allow to become as warm as possible without danger from fire. Boil one pound of laundry soap or whale oil soap in a gallon of soft water until completely dissolved. Remove the soap solution from the fire, and while still boiling hot, add the kerosene and agitate vigorously for ten minutes, or until the....
John Ruskin
Son of man, I have made thee a watchman; therefore hear the word of my mouth and give them warning from me. Hebrew Prophet. The pulpit sustains so many relations to literature that when a great writer dies it cannot pass the event unnoticed. The preacher is not a literary man, but he is deeply indebted to those men who, by the greatness of their thought, the power of their imagination, and the freedom and eloquence of their expression, are worthy to be called literary men.
Making All Things New
And He that sitteth upon the throne said. Behold ! I maketh all things new. Apocalypse. It is interesting to remind ourselves that in its origin the word Nature describes a process and not an object. It is more a verb than a noun. In its earliest form it signifies that which is 'about to be born.' In philosophy it would be called 'a becoming.' This suggests that the remote word makers saw, beneath appearances, the enduring substance.
A Noble Life Motive
And he said unto them, how is it that ye sought me ? Knew ye not that I must be about the business of my Father? - Jesus. The story from which these words are taken is one of the most beautiful in the New Testament. It has been celebrated in poetry and has furnished a subject for painters. In quiet evening hours mothers have told it to their children and it has awakened aspirations in the breast of many an ardent youth.
A Growing Gospel
He that believeth on me, t he works that I do shall he do also; and greater works shall he do, because I go unto my Father. Jesus. Nothing seems to be complete in itself, but points to something else for its fulfillment. Our language has its different degrees running from positive to superlative. These ,degrees and all the qualifying forms of speech exist in language because they first existed in nature.
Fifty Years Of A Church's Life
A jubilee shall that fiftieth year be unto you. - Hebrew Scriptures. All things are conditioned in time. This is true of a world that endures for a hundred ages or a flower that only blooms for a few summer days. The words old and young are relative and vary in their meaning with the nature of the thing which they qualify. The pyramids seem very ancient when compared with some of man's work - the discovery of the use of steam or electricity...
The Irrepressible Conflict
The flesh lusteth against the spirit. - Paul. Each reader of ancient and middle-age and modern literature is impressed by the continuity and similarity of human thought and expression. Given the same kind of facts and the same kind of mind to contemplate them and the results will be similar. This is equally true of the facts of external nature and those of the soul.
Beholding And Becoming
But we all with unveiled face beholding as in a mirror the glory of the Lord are transformed into the same image.- Paul. The doctrine of Evolution makes much of the fact that all forms of life are powerfully affected by their surroundings. Some have thought that the influence thus exerted, if not able to create, at least greatly modifies existing physical types of life.
The End Of A Great Century
One generation passeth away, and another generation cometh; but the earth endureth forever. - Ecclesiastes. After two more sunsets we shall enjoy a unique experience. We shall witness the departure of an old and the arrival of a new century. Emerson once wished for a condition in which no experience would be repeated. Having suffered or enjoyed a thing once he wished that we might pass onward to something new.
Honorable Womanhood
Preached the Sunday following the death of the Queen. Many daughters have done virtuously. Hebrew Proverb. The passing years furnish many lessons for all diligent students. Schools and books instruct, but for every mortal, time is the greatest teacher. Only our early years are passed in the common school-rooms and colleges. A period comes when their tasks are completed.
Two Great Americans
The memory of the just is blessed. - Hebrew Proverb. The human mind can apprehend and enjoy an abstract principle, but its greatest admiration is reserved for a principle when it assumes a concrete form. We all love to see force in action. One may learn something of the power of the sun from a book of natural philosophy. Its attraction and heat and light may be stated in terms of mathematics.
Music And Worship
Sing unto the Lord with the harp; with the harp and the voice of a psalm. - Hebrew Poetry. The origin of beauty has always been a difficult problem for the men of science and philosophy. Seen everywhere in nature, no One knows certainly how or whence it came. As an external fact, the evolutionists think its primal root is in material things. The symmetry of animal forms, the gay plumage of some birds, and the brilliant colors of flowers they think may have been produced by a long process of natural selection.
The Boast Of Heraldry
I have anointed my king upon the hill of holiness. - Hebrew Poet. For naturalist and moralist alike one topic never looses its interest, - the struggle of the best for supremacy. The apostles of evolution consider this as one of the chief factors of all progress. By many attempts, new adaptations, transmisson of tendencies, - the eye adjusting itself to light, the ear to sound, the brain to thought,- the stairway by which life ascends was slowly constructed.
The Aim Of Religion
A highway shall be there and it shall be called the way of holiness. Isaiah. The philosophers tell us that, in order to produce anything, four distinct influences are necessary. In making a world or in making a flower four causes are present. The first of these is the efficient cause; or that which is the principal force in the production of an object. The second is the formal cause; or the shape which the object may take.
Government And The People
Give the King thy judgments, O God, and he will judge thy people righteously. Hebrew Poetry. The many successful and unsuccesful attempts at assassination of those in power and the general unrest in different nations of the earth, at frequent intervals, indicate a lack of harmony between the governments and some of the people. Within a century twenty kings and queens and presidents have been murdered.
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