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Grape Troubles And Their Remedy
In looking over the matter I think the excess of moisture has been the cause of much of the trouble we have had. The three troubles which has been given us the most concern in the way of pests are : Black rot, brown rot and downy mildew. The latter we are not troubled with, but the excess of moisture we have had during the last two years is responsible for the others more than anything else.
Preparing The Land And Planting
The question of selecting a site is far more important than preparing the land. To begin with, it makes a vast difference what kind of land you are going to prepare; what the previous condition of the land may have been; how it had been handled; state of fertility, etc. In a general way, however, I would not advocate planting young trees on sod land or land that had been in sod the previous year.
Spraying And Preparing For Winter
I do not believe that a fruit grower can afford to neglect spraying his young orchard. It certainly is not economy. I look at the proposition like this : The first few years in the life of an orchard we are growing trees. When the tree comes into bearing it does not depend upon the age of that tree as to the crop it produces, but more upon the fruit-bearing surface of that tree, and as far as the young orchard is concerned when it comes into bearing the production of the orchard does not depend upon the age or upon the number of trees...
Water - A Protection From Frost
Farmers who grow fruit and vegetables have been seeking earnestly for some protection against frosts in the fall and spring. So far no device or plan affording this protection has been found satisfactory.The loss by frosts every year makes an immense aggregate running into the millions. Smudges of smoke have been invoked but can only be effective in a perfect calm. Even a gentle breeze makes this protection impossible. Firepots distributed through an orchard are weak attempts to heat up all out-doors.
Care Of Small Fruits
We are growing our fruit largely for canning factories and distribution throughout the country. Our small fruits in the first state are shipped through the province of Ontario and the east. Very little of it goes west. Our other fruits, plums, grapes, and to some extent, peaches are sent to the western provinces, where they are competing with your western fruits, and British Columbia.
Pruning And Cultivating
The pruning and cultivating of a young orchard are very important parts of the growing of that orchard. It is safe to say that the first two years of the starting of an orchard is as important as any two years in its life that you might pick out, no matter what kind of fruit you may be growing. I want to emphasis the fact that correct starting is a mighty important thing, for if you make a mistake, you may never be able to correct it.
What Is New In Spraying
I should like at this time to make a plea for the old home-made lime and sulphur. Eight or ten years ago-yes, even five or six years ago-a good strong spray of home-made lime and sulphur used to take care of the bud moth, the pear psylla., and used to greatly re-duce the numbers of plant lice.
Selecting The Site For An Orchard
Any traveler in almost any part of Michigan can see thousands of orchards planted in places where it would seem that not one thought has been given to the location by the owner. Orchards that have never produced enough fruit to pay for the trees and never will do so. The big freeze of 1906 taught many Michigan fruit growers a very expensive lesson but already some seem to have forgotten this and others have gone into the business without knowing or informing themselves of very recent horticultural history.
M. A. C. Students' Speaking Contest
Three years ago the Michigan State Horticultural Society introduced the plan of having the senior horticultural students at the Michigan Agricultural College contest for cash prizes of $60 in giving five-minute addresses at the annual meeting; also in judging and identifying some of the plates of fruit on exhibit at the same meeting.
The Red Grape
During the last decade Michigan Horticulture has suffered a great many serious setbacks and large amonts of money have been lost through disease but to my mind Michigan grape growers have never had a more serious disease to contend with than the so-called 'Red-Grape' or downy mildew.
The Sulzer Apple Bill
The Sulzer Apple Bill deals with the grading, packing, and branding of apples. It was passed by Congress and signed by the President, August 3, 1912. It provides that: (1) The, barrel stave shall be 281/2 inches long, the diameter of the head 17˝/8 inches, the distance between heads 26 inches, and the circumference of the bulge, outside measurement 64 inches, making as near as possible 7,056 cubic inches...
Legumes For Cover Crops
The place of cover crops in soil improvement has long been recognized. The immense importance of the legumes in this connection is of more recent development. The legumes themselves, that is the individual vetch, clover and alfalfa plants are not in themselves so superior to other cover crops. Their great value lies in their ability to serve as hosts for nitrogen fixing bacteria, the influence of...
Three Kinds Of Apple Trees
The question of growing dwarf apples in the commercial orchard is one that has received a great deal of discussion pro and con among commercial fruit growers.The source of basic information upon this subject is rather limited due to the fact that at the present time the number of dwarf commercial orchards are few in number.
Top Working Orchard Trees
The top working of orchard trees is becoming more widely practiced by up-to-date scientific orchardists every year. Many orchards, especially those planted before the era of scientific horticulture in Michigan, are found unsuitable to the climate and other environmental conditions about them. To take out these old orchards and rejuvenate them with young suitable trees would require much patience...
The Apple Package - Boxes Or Barrels
Shall the box supplant the barrel as the standard apple package? This question has confronted the eastern apple growers almost continuously since western apples in boxes began to compete with eastern barrel-packed apples some fifteen years ago. It has nettled the easterner to see a bushel box of Washington apples sell for $3.00 while his own 3 bushel barrel of the same variety brought only $4.00...
Pedigree Trees
'Breed is more than feed.' This expression applies to all domesticated animals, and a horse, a cow, a pig, or a dog is valued according to its pedigree.By the term pedigree we refer to the genealogy, the descent or in simpler terms, a pedigree is the record of the line of ancestors. The pure races of animals which we have today were produced by repeated selection or crossing of the ancestors of our present day animals. The record of these ancestors is the pedigree.
Baldwin Fruit Spot
The Baldwin Fruit Spot is a disease, so-called perhaps because it occurs on this variety more than on any other. But the specimens which I have in my hand are Northern Spies affected with this disease.This fruit spot is called by various names and is confused with 'Sooty Spot' and 'Brown Spot,' both of which are fungus diseases.
Needs Of Michigan Horticulture
'Michigan as a fruit state is a back number.' Do you believe this? Is that putting it too strong? Anyway that is the essence of a prominent two-column article in a national fruit magazine of over one hundred thousand circulation. And the men who were responsible for that expression are, I suspect, in this room at this time.
The History Of The American Grape
Nowhere in the history of American fruit-growing is there a story as romantic or as fascinating as the history of the American Grape. It is a story full of vicissitudes, vain endeavors, and repeated failures which were at last superseded by complete success. From the first America was known as a land of vines. It is said that the old Norse Viking 'Leif-the-Lucky' called New England 'Vineland'...
Apple Breeding
The subject of apple breeding should be of interest to every Michigan apple grower, and, I am sure that it is worthy of our serious consideration. A few facts may be of interest to show what has been accomplished in this particular branch of horticulture. In the 'Apples of New York' 698 varieties are described.
Varieties For The Commercial Peach Orchard
In the selection of varieties for the commercial peach orchard there are a few factors upon which the success or failure of an orchard depend. A study of the conditions in Michigan show that orchard after orchard is set every spring with poor varieties.First of all we desire to raise a peach for which there is a demand. A peach which is large, well colored and attractive in appearance.
The Codling Moth In The Packing House
Thousands of dollars are lost annually by the fruit growers of Michigan through their neglect and carelessness in fumigating. their storage and packing houses. The codling moth, the most serious insect enemy of the apple, winters over in such sheltered places, as well as under the bark on the trees.The larvae or apple worm crawls out of the apple in storage, and having found a suitable place, weaves about itself a cocoon.
Thinning Fruit
Thinning fruit on the tree is an important operation in the scientific management of orchards, and one that Michigan horticulturists should practice more extensively. We want to establish in the mind of the markets and in every consumer the idea that Michigan stands for quality. Let us assist nature in her effort to put Michigan on top.
Business Principles In Horticulture
The application of business principles in any concern is limited to their practical value. It is doubtful if any one can afford to practice methods that are not of practical value.In locating for horticulture, several questions will appear. Can .one afford to sacrifice easy access to market for good soil, or will it be better to sacrifice the good soil for poorer soil closer to market? Generally a good site and market are to be desired.
Fruit Growing From A Woman's Standpoint
Fruit growing is very interesting, in fact it is fascinating. You plant the little tree, watch the buds start, then the blossoms and later the ripened fruit. How well I remember our first crop of cherries. Mr. Rose said to me one day, 'Get a little pail and we will pick our crop of cherries.' There were less than four quarts of them, but we were as proud of that crop as we ever were of thousands of crates in later years.
Codling Moth And Apple Aphis
In our ordinary spraying for the codling moth we use two sprays, one spray just as the petals fall, and another spray the first week in August. Beside these, we sometimes put on another about fourteen days after the petal spray, and sometimes one between that and the first week in August.
The New Sulzer Apple Law
It gives me a great deal of pleasure to be here today, even though it is a rainy day, and for several reasons : First, I am always willing to do anything for your good Secretary, Mr. Bassett, and for Prof. Eustace, one of the members of your Agricultural College staff; and then, these and other gentlemen have said so many things about your good fellowship, you...
The Banquet
The delightful social feature of the forty-second annual meeting of the State Horticultural meeting was the banquet, which was held in the St. Cecelia Hall, a musical institution maintained and carried forward by the music lovers of Grand Rapids. The rooms were hardly large enough to comfortably seat the two hundred and over guests who sat down to the tables, but this little inconvenience was over...
Successful Peach Growing
If you are going to build a good house, the most important thing would be to put it on a firm foundation so that it would not be destroyed by the elements or blown down in time of a storm. So it is with the orchard, put it on a firm foundation, and then it will give you paying crops for twenty years or thirty years. I have seen peach orchards forty years old in Northern California, still in a thrifty condition.
Problems That Confront The Michigan Fruit Growers
It is a very easy matter to suggest problems, and it is not at all a difficult matter for the practical fruit grower to propound them, but what we want here is someone who can solve them. This is what we are up against—we want some one to put his head above the horizon who is able to give us a satisfactory solution of the many problems that present themselves to...
Facts Learned In Three Years Orchard Renting
Four years ago when we began renting orchards we knew of no one who was making a specialty of this work. We soon learned of a few others, one of whom was our president, Mr. T. A. Farrand. In the section we chose, Hillsdale county, for a goodly number of fair-sized orchards making little or no returns to the owner, and in some instances very lightly valued by them.
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