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Milk Production
Dairy farming. The production of milk is becoming a vocation which requires well-trained personnel and adequate equipment. The increasing sanitary requirements are making it difficult for the farmer to meet the quality standards unless he gives detailed attention to milk production. He cannot do this if his milk operations are only an incidental sideline to his general farming program.
Milk Certification
The feeding of impure milk to infants has been a potent factor in the incidence of gastrointestinal illness and tuberculosis, and in a high mortality rate. In 1892, a physician of Newark, N. J., Dr. Henry L. Coit, conceived the idea that it was possible to produce cows' milk of a greatly improved quality as compared with that of the ordinary commercial supplies.
Milk Pasteurization
The word pasteurization takes its name from the great French biochemist, Louis Pasteur. He discovered that microscopically minute forms of plant life were causative agents in the spoilage of wine and also in the development of certain diseases. When any of these germs gained entrance to a food product or the tissues of a person, they found nutrient materials which enabled them to...
Ice Cream Technology
Just as in milk-plant operation, a prospective ice-cream dealer must apply to the official control agency, usually the health department, for a permit to operate (see pages 58, 128). State laws and regulations for ice-cream control are usually administered by the agriculture and health departments.
Butter Production
Cream for the manufacture of butter is mostly produced by farmers who are engaged primarily in other lines of agriculture. Most farmers keep a few cows as a source of regular income throughout the year. They usually do not provide themselves with either the knowledge or the equipment to produce cream of the quality that could be produced if they were really dairy-minded.
Cheese Production
The cheese-manufacturing industry was formerly centered in the states of Pennsylvania and New York, but the increasing demands of the large metropolitan population for bottled milk have raised the price of milk beyond the level where the cheese manufacturer in this part of the country can compete with those who secure their milk from the cheaper supplies in more remote areas.
Concentrated Milks
Several types of concentrated milks are in large commercial production.Evaporated milk is cows' milk condensed in vacuo in the ratio of about 2 1/4 parts of fresh milk to 1 part of evaporated milk. This is the unsweetened, canned milk, which is usually packed in 14 1/2-ounce 'tall cans,' or, to a limited extent, in 6-ounce cans, and sterilized. It has the appearance and consistency of light cream.
Condensed Milk
It is necessary to supervise the quality of the raw-milk supply to make a satisfactory condensed milk. Excessive bacterial contamination with its concomitant acidity, off-flavors from any source, and sediment are harmful factors in the production of a good marketable product.
Milk Powder
In order to make good milk powder, it is necessary to start with milk of good quality. Usually milk powder is made from surplus milk of the bottled-milk supply. The equipment for the cheaper grade of powder (called roller powder) is not expensive, and a unit occupies only a relatively small amount of space.
Other Dairy Products
It has been known for a long time that babies fed with boiled milk thrived better than those fed with regular milk. It was supposed that this improved quality lay in the destruction of pathogenic organisms. Gradually a wealth of data has been accumulating which shows that boiling or other treatment of milk increases its digestibility.
Vitamin D Milk
The vitamin D content of milk has been increased by irradiating the cows with ultra-violet light, by feeding them with irradiated yeast or irradiated ergosterol, by directly irradiating the milk itself, or by adding to the milk various vitamin D concentrates such as the un-saponifiable fraction of cod-liver oil, irradiated ergosterol, sun-rayed ergosterol in oil, or ergosterol...
Fermented Milk
The successful production of acidophilus milk is a difficult commercial undertaking because it is dependent on the use of the best bacteriological and operating room technic. As the culture seems to lose its potency with time, fresh strains must be isolated from rat or human feces every few months.
Human Milk
Pediatricians have many cases that require human milk. These may be prematures, difficult feeding cases, or hospitalized infants. In several of the larger communities, agencies have been established to supply this need. The milk is taken from nursing mothers who volunteer and sell this milk at a stipulated price.
Margarine Production
Milk and a wide variety of animal and vegetable fats and oils are used for the manufacture of margarine. Different manufacturers select those fats which they can use to best advantage. The determining factors may be their price, their quality, or their physical properties. Those most generally used are oleo stock, oleo stearin, neutral lard, soybean oil, peanut oil, coconut oil, cottonseed oil...
Meat And Its Products
Although the flesh of fish and fowl is meat just as truly as that of cattle, swine, sheep, and goats, the term meat is generally restricted to the flesh of the latter animals. The amount of edible cuts from dressed-out carcasses averages about 55 percent for steers, about 50 percent for sheep, and about 80 percent for swine.
The poultry industry produces and markets pre-dominantly chickens, turkeys, geese, guinea fowls, and pigeons. Chickens are kept on general farms in practically all sections of the country primarily to produce eggs, so that the great bulk of the market fowl from this source consists of young surplus males and old stock that have become unprofitable as layers.
The great bulk of the supply of eggs comes from general farm flocks in the north central states, although many are produced on special poultry farms. The production is highest during the spring and early summer, and then gradually declines to a low point at the end of the year.
Fishery Products
When it is recalled that water covers about three-quarters of the surface of the earth, and that it abounds in animal (and vegetable) life throughout both its area and its depth, some idea of its enormous potentialities for human food may be realized. However, only a relatively small part of its animal life is utilized in this way.
Cereals And Bakery Products
Cereal products such as wheat, corn, rice, oats, rye, and barley constitute a very large part of our food supply. The great bulk of wheat is prepared as refined flour, corn as corn meal and starch, and rice as the milled and polished grain. In recent years, all the above grains have been used in the preparation of scores of breakfast foods.
Fresh Fruits And Vegetables
Application of the newer knowledge of nutrition to the dietary of the public has brought about great changes in the nature of the food supply. Fruits and vegetables now constitute a much greater percent-age of the food consumed than formerly - a fact which has opened production areas increasingly distant from great metropolitan centers of population.
Preserved Foods - Part 1
All the common fruits and vegetables are now canned, and new ones are added as their technology is worked out. Among the meat products canned are beef, mutton, lamb, and pork, including hash, broth, soup, ragout, stew, corned beef and cabbage, Hungarian goulash, potted veal, veal loaf, sausage, and also poultry and its products.
Preserved Foods - Part 2
As a result of the general observation that perish-able foodstuffs can be maintained in edible condition for a longer time if they are kept cold, much effort has been devoted to developing refrigeration methods which can be applied economically and effectively. In the earlier days, ice was the refrigerant. Since the invention of the compression refrigerating machine in 1834...
Preserved Foods - Part 3
When a foodstuff has dried out to a greater or less extent, it can be stored for long periods without spoiling from microbic attack (such as souring, molding, and putrefying). In the absence of sufficient water, microorganisms cannot maintain their normal metabolic processes but either die off or form resistant spores. Even enzymic changes are slowed down.
Preserved Foods - Part 4
The preservation of food by the common methods of smoking, salting, sugaring, curing, pickling, fermenting and, to a less extent, spicing, are dependent on the chemical or physical action of one or more constituents.These substances may act directly by bactericidal or fungicidal action, or indirectly by creating an unfavorable environment for microbic growth. In the first case, some of these preserving factors may poison microorganisms.
The Early Signs Of Pregnancy
The first circumstance to make a woman suspect that she is pregnant is generally the non-appearance of her usual monthly discharge. This is called the cessation of the menses, or monthlies, and is one of the most constant signs of pregnancy. Cases, do, indeed, now and then occur, in which, notwithstanding pregnancy, the customary flow takes place for the first few months...
Management Of Pregnancy
The proper treatment of pregnancy consists for the most part in paying increased attention to the laws of health. A pregnant woman requires a full allowance of rest, and should therefore be careful to avoid late hours. She should take plenty of outdoor exercise whenever the state of the weather permits; and, while avoiding all unnecessary strain, such as the lifting...
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