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Wintergreen Family
UNTIL quite recently, and even yet in some books, this family is treated as a part of the great Heath family, but is sufficiently distinctive to stand by itself. Several members of the group are shrubs while the others are evergreen herbs. The petals of the corolla are not united to each other and the calyx is free from the ovary.
Indian Pipe Family
WHO has not wondered at the strange, ghost-like beauty of the Indian Pipe as the plant rises from its bed of brown needles in the shadow of the pines. It seems to belong to the tribe of mushrooms and toadstools rather than to that of the flowering plants.
Rose Family
One who has noticed the structure of the flower of the beautiful wild rose or who has studied with any care the equally beautiful apple blossoms has gotten an idea of the structure of a typical example of the Rose family, which includes a large number of trees and shrubs as well as a few herbaceous wild flowers.
Mustard Barberry, Spiderwort And Phlox Families
THE Toothworts are attractive spring flowers belonging to the Mustard Family (Cruciferce),which are often found growing abundantly in cool, damp woods. The perennial rootstocks have a peppery taste, which has given the plants the general name Pepper-root.
Lily Family
FEW families of wild flowers are more distinctive or more beautiful than that of the Lilies. The conspicuous blossoms consist of three sepals and three petals which are frequently similar in structure and appearance and which, taken together, are called the perianth.
Lily of the Valley Family
SOME of the most beautiful of the spring wild flowers belong to the Lily-of-the-Valley family, which is named from the Lily-of-the-Valley so highly prized in our flower gardens. The flowers belonging to this family have a general resemblance to the Lilies, to which they are closely related, but instead of having bulbs or corms, as do the Lilies, they have more or less thickened rootstocks...
Madder Family
THE Madder family is a comparatively small group which includes a few herbaceous wild flow-ers common in the United States. These have small leaves which are arranged either opposite each other or in whorls around the stalk. In most cases the flowers are of two or three forms as regards the lengths of the stamens and pistils.
Violet Family
Everyone is familiar with the leading characteristics of the Violet family. The beautiful irregular flowers with five sepals and five petals, some of the latter being curiously modified into nectar spurs, are succeeded by small capsules within which are the numerous minute seeds.
Iris Family Iridaceae
The members of this interesting family are perennial herbs which usually have thickened or bulbous roots, with vertical two-ranked leaves and showy flowers in which the three stamens face outward. While this group includes many of our most beautiful cultivated plants there are comparatively few wild flowers belonging to it.
Geranium Family
As now restricted by the leading botanists the Geranium family is a small group of which the common Wild Geranium is a typical example. These are herbaceous plants in which the alternate or opposite leaves are almost always provided with stipules and in which the flowers have all the parts regularly arranged.
Birthwort Family
The curious flowers of the plants of this family have no petals but have many seeds that develop in the six-celled ovary. The interesting climbing plant called Pipe Vine or Dutchman's Pipe, which grows wild in the southern states and is very generally planted about porches in the northern states, is the typical illustration of this group.
Primrose Family
The Primrose family does not occupy so prominent a place among our American wild flowers as it does in England where the beautiful English primroses grow wild in great abundance and are familiar to everyone. With the exception of the Star-flower, the Shooting Star and the Pimpernel, the American members of this family are not especially attractive.
Milkwort Family
This is a comparatively small family represented in the eastern United States by the single genus Polygala, which includes a number of more or less abundant wild flowers. Many of these rather closely resemble one another and are some-what difficult to determine with certainty, but a very few of them are distinctive and widely distributed.
Dogwood Family
The Dogwood family is for the most part composed of shrub-like or tree-like species, there being generally distributed in the United States but one herbaceous form. The Flowering Dogwood, a tree with gigantic blossoms and very striking appearance, is a typical representative of this family...
Orchid Family
The Orchids are perhaps the most interesting of all the flowering plants. They are perennials which are dependent to an extraordinary degree upon insects for the carrying of the pollen from flower to flower. The structure of the blossom is somewhat complicated and it is followed by the curious seed pod in which there is an enormous number of very minute seeds.
Honeysuckle Family
To the botanist the beautiful little blossoms of the Twin-flower or LinnŠa are valued not only for their delicate beauty and delicious fragrance but also because this blossom was chosen to perpetuate the name of the great founder of botanical science--Linnaeus, the Swedish naturalist. In its structure the flower is also of decided interest.
Pitcher Plant Family
In the more northern states the curious family of Pitcher Plants is represented by but a single species. The members of this group are especially characterized by the modification of the leaves into pitchers that hold water and that serve as traps for various sorts of insects. They also have flowers strange and interesting in structure, although these are not so often seen as are the leaves.
Jewel-Weed Family
SO far as the United States is concerned this is a small family, having the single genus to which our common Wild Balsams or Jewel-weeds belong. These are often called Touch-me-nots, on account of the curious way in which the seed pods burst when disturbed. They are also sometimes called Silver-leaf on account of the beautiful coloring of the leaves.
Water Lily Family
The Water Lily family may certainly claim to be the most beautiful group of aquatic wild flow-ers. All the members of this family are perennial herbs which are especially characterized by long, horizontal root-stocks living on or in water. The flowers have three to five sepals and five to many petals and stamens.
Water Plantian Family
Along the small brooks and in many swampy places the leaves and blossoms of the Arrowhead or Sagittaria-the Latin equivalent of the English name-give a distinctly decorative touch to the summer landscape. In appearance the whole plant is so clear-cut that one must admire it.
Dogbane Family
The Dogbane is the typical representative of the Dogbane family. It is beloved of butterflies and is one of the most attractive summer blossoming plants. The flowers are small individually but they are so grouped as to be quite conspicuous against the background of the clean green leaves.
Lobelia Family
For brilliance of color no blossom in our summer fields can compare with the Cardinal Flower, which holds its flaming spikes on tall, erect stems in marshes, and along margins of brooks and ditches. It is a water lover and is to be found only where its roots can reach an abundance of moisture.
Mint Family
THE Mint family includes a large number of herbaceous plants which are characterized by their square stems and their simple, opposite leaves, which nearly always have aromatic and distinctive odors. The petals are united into a two-lipped corolla, to the inside of which are attached the two or four stamens. The stigma is two-lobed and the ovary is deeply cleft in two parts.
Figwort Family
THE Figwort family is a large group containing a considerable variety of interesting wild flowers. These usually have the petals united together into a tube with two distinct lips at theouter end. There are two or four stamens and a two-celled ovary from which arises a single stylethat sometimes bears two stigmas. The ovaries develop into pods with a varying number of seeds.
Pokeweed Family
In little clearings of the woods, especially if a recent fire has destroyed other herbaceous plants, one is pretty sure to find the Poke-weed or Garget growing in abundance. This is probably due to the fact that its seeds are largely distributed through the agency of the birds that eat the berries, and everyone knows that little glades along the borders of woods are favorite haunts of...
St. John's Wort And Wild Carrot Families
The St. John's-wort is the prophet of the Goldenrod. Long before the fields are yellowed by the Midas touch of the latter plant they are spotted here and there by the brilliant blossoms of the Hypericum. There are many species of these, varying from tiny plants only a few inches high to the larger ones two or three feet high.
Composite Family
THE great family of plants in which the flowers are closely crowded together into a flat head, as illustrated in the case of the familiar Sunflower, is called CompositŠ. This includes a large pro-portion of the conspicuous wild flowers found throughout the season.
Gentian Family
THE members of the Gentian family have the petals united into a corolla with as many stamens as there are lobes of the corolla and with simple, opposite leaves which are sessile and without stipules. The ovary is free and it develops into a pod with many small seeds. The typical members of this group are the Gentians, of which several species are found in the United States.
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