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The Feet And Legs
The form of the legs can be changed only by the use of under-tights, heavily lined with layers of wool. Of course they must be made to order by a good costume maker.
Paddings (stuffings)
Paddings handicap the freedom of movement and are advised only when absolutely necessary.
How To Increase And Decrease Height
To increase height, use: Double soles in the shoes, or specially made shoes.
Youth, Maturity, Old Age
At every age the face of a woman is whiter, sweeter, less wrinkled and more harmonious than the face of a man.
Imitation Of Effects Produced By Sicknesses
Pale lips, pale face, a little red color on the cheek bones, showing feverish condition, with eyes sunken with gray blue.
Introduction
In 1562, a modest Italian vocal teacher, Maffei, published a few letters regarding the voice and its culture. He seems to have given the start to a horde of writers, and our generation is heir to a very rich literature on the subject.
Fundamentals
Naturalness. The art of singing is the most intricate of any, and yet the most simple. In other words, while the cultivated artist will find plenty of use for all his intelligence and his years of education, it is nevertheless true that his or her work is really great in proportion as it approaches naturalness.
Classification Of The Voice
In classifying a voice, it is essential to consider particularly 1. The range. 2. The timbre (quality). 3. Vocal temperament. In determining the range, care must be taken to keep it within easy limits ; in other words, consider only so much of the scale as is taken naturally, without straining.
General Conservation Of The Voice
Proper classification of a voice (in some cases when quality or testiture is injured and abused) may take weeks or even months. It is necessary to let the voice grow normally in strength, in extent, in beauty, in plasticity each branch of the restorative process taking its proper time.
Breathing
No element in the production of the human voice has been the subject of so much attention and contention as has breathing. It has been specialized upon and magnified out of all proportion to its relative importance.
Breathing Exercises
A singer should be physically strong. Special exercises are advisable, but by no means should they be mixed with the study of voice. Such exercises should not be practiced within three hours after eating.
Development Of Voice
The intensity of a sound depends upon the quantity of vibrations of the sonorous body.The breath is the principal factor in developing the intensity of a voice, but not the only one. The resounding chambers are also of vital importance.
Interpretation And Expression
It is difficult to express a thought without first having it well pictured or 'imagined.' This relates as well to tone as to interpretation.
The Halls
The halls, like the vocal apparatus itself, have their individuality, which is more or less adapted to the needs of singing. Few halls are accoustically correct, and the singer must be ready to comply with the varying demands.
Defective Voices
A normal human being does not usually talk for the mere sake of talking, but to say something which he desires another or others to hear ; he talks to some one, and that some one is at a point more or less distant, as the case may be.
Natural Tone Production
The mouth, or better stated, the lips, are the last of our vocal organs participating in the control of tones, before they come in contact with the air. This fact suggested the calling of the forward voice 'voice on the lips'.
Vocal Hygiene From The Musical Point Of View
A well-placed voice is not afraid of work, does not suffer from it, and is not subject to disagreeable professional accidents. A voice is well placed only when its strength is in harmony with its carrying power.
Peculiarities Of Tone Incident To Different Nationalities
Music in every branch is international, though still maintaining national peculiarities in musical form as well as in vocal tone and method.
Anatomy, Physiology And Hygiene Of The Vocal-Organs
The Larynx is shaped like a box and is made up of muscular, membranous and cartilaginous substance; it is part of the neck, behind and below the base of the tongue. The upper opening of the larynx is covered by a lid known as the epiglottis.
Hygiene Of Voice
Although it is well to treat singers and public speakers, it is better to give certain rules or advice for avoiding disease or trouble of any kind. The anatomical and physiological relations between the nose and throat prove that hygienic measures suitable for one will also be good for the other.
Colds In General
Never before, as at the present time has there been upon the part of the general public, such a keen appreciation of the value of hygienic knowledge, and such an earnest effort to benefit through the application of hygienic laws.
Anatomical Outlines
The nose, as we use the term when speaking of its diseases, includes not only the external or visible portion, the nose proper, but also the cavities lying within, technically designated the nasal fossae.
Nose And Throat Functions
Nature, in its exercise of the hygienic function of protecting the organism against hostile and injurious elements, is nowhere so beautifully and so profusely illustrated as in the upper air passages.
Highways For The Invasion Of Disease
To best appreciate the wonderfully constructed machinery of the body and to understand rightly the conditions of health and the causation of disease, it is necessary that man should be considered from a biological viewpoint.
Predisposing Causes
That universal plague, which we call the common head cold, stands to-day as a mockery and a reproach to our boasted civilisation.
Atmospheric Factors
There has been, in the most recent times, a tendency to deny the influence, or at least minimise the importance of atmosphere in the causation of colds.
Colds And Micro-Organisms
It is a matter of more than mere theoretic interest to know something about what germs have to do with colds, for it is a subject intimately bound up with the question of whether or not colds are contagious and as to how valuable are antiseptics or vaccines in its prevention and cure.
Symptoms, Complications And Sequelae
It seems almost superfluous to describe the symptoms and characteristics of a cold; for who is it that has not had an opportunity to become familiarly acquainted with them through the unwelcome process of personal experience?
Principles Of Prevention
A commander of an army in the midst of war, confronted or surrounded by the enemy will be constantly engaged in one of three orders of activities, which will be adopted according to conditions or circumstances at the time prevailing, these activities being namely, attack, defence and retreat.
Methods Of Prevention
While certain of the contributory causes of colds are unavoidable, there are a great many which could and should be prevented.
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