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Harriet Beecher Stowe
It was given to a New England woman to write the most widely circulated book of the Century, one which had even greater political effect than literary power. 'Uncle Tom's Cabin' excited both in North and South that impassioned feeling which culminated in bloody strife and did not cease till slavery was abolished.
New York Authors
The growing commercial and political importance of New York, its increase of wealth, and the enterprise of its publishers, both of books and periodicals, tended to make it a literary center before the close of the first half-century. Among the writers drawn thither were some who had been connected with Brook Farm, including Dr. George Ripley (1802-1880), who had first suggested that experiment.
Bayard Taylor
Bayard Taylor (1825-1878) achieved wide fame, yet never reached the distinction at which he aimed. He was renowned as a traveler and descriptive writer, was much sought as a lecturer, but he wished to be known as a great poet. He was born at Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, of Quaker parents, learned to set type, and early showed strong desire for travel.
Richard Henry Stoddard
Richard Henry Stoddard is a connecting link between the early New York period and the present. He was born at Hingham, Massachusetts, in 1825. His father, a sea captain, was lost at sea while the poet was a child. Removing afterward to New York, Stoddard worked for some years in an iron foundry. But the iron did not enter into his soul to the exclusion of poetry.
Josiah Gilbert Holland
Dr. Josiah Gilbert Holland did good work in editing the 'Springfield Republican,' and founding 'Scribner's Monthly,' which became the 'Century Magazine.' He was born at Belchertown, Massachusetts, in 1819, and in spite of poverty and ill-health, won a doctor's degree from Berkshire Medical College at the age of twenty-five.
Southern Authors
In the South, before the Civil War, literature was not generally favored. Men of intellectual ability there became statesmen, ministers, orators and jurists. Yet some of these gave occasional attention to literary work, and a few devoted themselves to it almost entirely.
William Gilmore Simms
But the principal literary figure of the Old South was William Gilmore Simms (1806-1870), who was barn in Charleston, South Carolina, where his father had come from the North of Ireland, shortly after the Revolution. Left a motherless boy, he was apprenticed to a druggist,studied law under difficulties, but early showed devotion to the Muse.
Sidney Lanier
The most remarkably original singer of the South was Sidney Lanier (1842-1881) , who was chosen to write the cantata for the opening of the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia. He was descended from a long line of musicians, and distinguished his poetry by the intermingling of musical effects.
George Washington Cable
More than a dozen years after the Civil War there began to appear in 'Scribner's Magazine' a series of short stories, revealing singular types of character, and a peculiar civilization, surcharged with a delightful atmosphere, admirably adapted to the purpose of romance.
The Later Historians
According to the method which long prevailed in the study of history, attention is confined to wars, battles, sieges, changes of dynasties, actions of rulers and intrigues of courts, while the condition and desires of the mass of the people were disregarded.
Nature-Essayists
Several writers of this Century have devoted them-selves almost entirely to the literary treatment of natural history. Perhaps the first of the Nature-Essayists was Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862), who was born and died at Concord, Massachusetts.
Walt Whitman
The most startling and debatable contribution to American literature is that made by Walt Whitman (1819-1892). It claimed to be the true voice of Democratic America, and while the claim has been admitted by a scholarly few here, and acknowledged by an equal number of scholarly poets in Europe, there is no evidence that it has been so accepted anywhere by the people.
Bret Harte
Bret Harte was born at Albany, New York, in 1839. After receiving an ordinary education he went to California in 1854. There he taught school, worked in the mines and in a printing office, and wrote for the press. In 1867 he published 'Condensed Novels,' clever parodies of the leading English and American novelists.
William Dean Howells
William Dean Howells, born at Martinsville, Ohio, in 1837, is descended from Welsh Quakers. His father was a printer and published local newspapers. The son learned the same business and at nineteen went to Columbus, the State Capital, to become correspondent and editor.
Henry James
Henry James, noted as an essayist, sketch writer and novelist, was born in New York city in 1843. His father, bearing the same name, was a scholarly Swedenborgian and wrote much in advocacy of his belief. The son, on account of delicate health, was educated at home. Both as boy and man he has spent much time in Europe.
Lewis Wallace
Lewis Wallace had won distinction in other fields than that of literature before he became known to the world as the author of 'Ben Hur,' but this distinction has eclipsed his former fame. He was born at Brookville, Indiana, in 1827, the son of the Hon. David Wallace, who was at one time Governor of Indiana.
Edward Everett Hale
Among the most busy and productive leaders of Bos-ton for nearly half the Century has been Edward Everett Hale. Born in 1822, he was educated at the Latin School and Harvard College. For ten years from 1846 he was pastor of a church in Worcester, and then took charge of the South Church in Boston.
Joaquin Miller
In 1870 the 'Songs of the Sierras,' published in London, and describing California scenes, produced a literary sensation in England, and gave the author temporary fame as the long-expected truly American poet. The author's name was given as Joaquin Miller, but it was originally Cincinnatus Hiner Miller, the name Joaquin being borrowed from a Mexican brigand.
Edmund Clarence Stedman
Edmund Clarence Stedman has done immense service to American literature by his poems and criticisms, and by his editing the 'Library of American Literature' (11 vols. 1890-92), the 'Victorian Anthology' (1895), and a complete edition of 'Poe's Works' (1895).
Thomas Bailey Aldrich
Thomas Bailey Aldrich is a writer of polished, deli-cate poetry, and of quaint humorous stories. He was born at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in 1837, but entered on mercantile life in New York at the age of seventeen. Soon he turned to literature and in 1866 went to Boston to be editor of 'Every Saturday.'
Francis Marion Crawford
So competent a critic as Andrew Lang has pronounced Francis Marion Crawford the 'most versatile and various' of modern novelists. His novels cover an immensely wide range and introduce to the reader a great variety of character as well as environment.
Mark Twain (Samuel Langhorne Clemens)
The most distinguished exponent of American humor is Samuel Langhorne Clemens, known universally as Mark Twain. He was born at Florida, in Missouri, in 1835, and became a pilot on a Mississippi steamboat. Here he got the name 'Mark Twain' from the cry used to signify that the water was two fathoms deep.
Frank Richard Stockton
Among American writers of fiction Frank Richard Stockton holds a unique place. He was born in Philadelphia in 1834 and learned wood-engraving. He began his literary career by writing for children 'Round-about Rambles' and 'Tales out of School.'
Joel Chandler Harris
A remarkable contribution to American literature was made by Joel Chandler Harris in his negro dialect fables, popularly known as 'Uncle Remus.' Harris was born in 1848 at Eatonton, Georgia, learned the printer's trade and studied law before he settled down to journalism.
Eugene Field
Eugene Field (1850-1895) was a remarkable combination of a book-loving scholar, a wide-awake journalist, a Western humorist, and a tender-hearted poet. He was born at St. Louis, studied at more than one college, graduated from the University of Michigan and traveled in Europe.
Women Writers
The popular story, 'Little Women' (1868), was an idealized transcript of the author's family life. Never was there a more humorous and pathetic contrast than between the self-sacrificing devotion of the author and her mother and the unworldly wisdom of her unpractical father, 'the sage of Concord.'
Introduction
While special sciences were early developed to aid in the analysis of facial expression, the interest in and actual study of physiognomy, antedates all written treatises on the subject.
What Is Mimicry?
Language is the expression of thought and the emotions of the soul by words; mimicry is the expression of thought and these emotions by gesture and facial movements.
Acting—opera And Stage
Somehow or other, there is current among vocal students, and even among finished singers, an unjustified notion that acting on the singing stage is entirely different from acting on the speaking stage.
How To Study And Analyze A Part
The student must read and analyze carefully not only his role, but the entire libretto as well. Then the text of his role or of the song must be properly thought out and understood.
General Rules
Motion on the stage consists of the actor's actions as they have to do with the playing of his own part, and counter action consists of these actions as they have to do with, or bear upon, the parts played by his fellow actors.
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