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The Rise Of Realism
The transformation of the novel became complete when Gustave Flaubert (1821-1880) startled even Paris with his realistic creation, Madame Bovary, in 1856.
Literature Under The Republic-1870-1899
Giving precedence to fiction over serious literature, the extraordinary work done by Jules Verne is entitled to first notice.
Zola
Two novelists of equal talent and fame were born in 1840, Zola and Daudet. Both claim to be of the Naturalistic school.
Daudet
In sharp contrast with Zola stands his contemporary, Alphonse Daudet (1840-1898).
De Maupassant
Though only a writer of short stories, Guy De Mau-passant (1850-1893) won a reputation equal to the best as an artist.
Poetry And The Drama
Much of the foregoing applies to the dramatic output of the last quarter-century. Indeed, it is more true of the playwright than the novelist that he is fettered by the fickle taste of the hour.
History, Philosophy, Criticism
The French Academy has no brighter names on its roll than those of Renan and Taine. Each in his department and degree shed bright luster on the literature of the half-century.
Renan
Ernest Renan rose from a Breton peasant's cottage to be perhaps the first of those who added the distinct attraction of literary style to studies in history and allied subjects.
Taine
Hippolyte Adolphe Taine, born in 1828, had at twenty-five earned the degree of Doctor in Letters.
Recent Critics
The name of Edmond Henri Adolphe Schérer (1815-1896) commands exceptional respect.
Danish Literature
In the Eighteenth Century, Denmark, like the rest of Continental Europe, was strongly under the influence of French ideas.
Norwegian Literature
Norway had been united to Denmark for four Centuries until Napoleon's wars changed the map of Europe. At that critical period Denmark came into conflict with England in defense of her merchant marine, and in alarm for her own safety, attached herself to victorious France.
Swedish Literature
At the close of the Eighteenth Century Swedish literature had sunk into a depressed state.
Russian Literature
When Alexander I came to the throne of Russia in 1801, he was inclined to peace, but the policy and acts of Napoleon forced him into war, which culminated in the French invasion and the disastrous retreat from Moscow.
Tolstoi
Born of noble family, living the careless and dissipated life of gilded youth, then raised to high honor in war and literature, Count Lyof Tolstoi forsook his early ways to devote himself to the instruction of the emancipated serfs.
Polish Literature
The unhappy Kingdom of Poland came to an end in 1795, when the territories left after two previous divisions went to Austria and Russia.
Italian Literature
In the Eighteenth Century there had been an attempt to reform Italian literature by introducing simplicity in place of the over-wrought rhetoric which had long prevailed.
Spanish Literature
When Napoleon in 1808 humiliated Spain by treacherously seizing its King and placing his own brother Joseph on the throne, the intensely proud and loyal people rose in fury against the outrage.
Literature At The End Of The Eighteenth Century
The literature of Germany in the middle of the Eighteenth Century had shown many signs of social unrest and impending political revolution.
Goethe
Born in 1749 and dying in 1832, Johann Wolfgang Goethe belongs to two Centuries and in his active and varied intellectual career expressed the spirit of both.
Schiller
The name of Friedrich von Schiller is inseparably associated with that of his great friend. While the strong and healthy Goethe lived to his eighty-fourth year, the frail Schiller passed away in his forty-sixth.
Richter
Jean Paul Richter is unique among the writers of the world. His works sparkle with gems, but these are thrown together without order or reason, and though delightful at first view, they become tiresome when read continuously.
The Romanticists
The Romantic school in Germany had much in common with the Romanticists of France, whose views and practices, aims and doctrines have already been described.
Kant
Speculative philosophy had direct as well as indirect effect upon German literature, but it is impossible here to do more than glance at this vast and profound subject.
Schopenhauer
Still another philosopher long suffered from neglect of his teachings, but has in recent time had powerful influence on thought: Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860).
Poets Of The War Of Liberation
When Prussia was crushed to earth under the iron heel of Napoleon it seemed impossible that she should ever recover her former status.
The Reaction Against Romanticism
After the downfall of Napoleon there was need for reconstruction of Germany.
Heine
Heinrich Heine and Goethe are in many respects opposite as the poles, yet the former is also the real successor in literature of the great German.
The Suabian Poets
As an offshoot from the Romantic School there arose a group which has been called the Suabian School, its modest leader being Ludwig Uhland (1787-1862).
Mid-century Poets
Ferdinand Freiligrath (1810-1876), born at Detmold, was from childhood a scribbler of verse, original and translated.
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