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Ian Maclaren
The second of the Kail-yard Group, as these Scotch novelists have been somewhat contemptuously called, is the Rev. John Watson, who writes under the pen-name Ian Maclaren.
Mrs. Humphry Ward
No novel of recent years has excited wider discussion than Robert Elsmere (1888). Mr. Gladstone honored it with a long article in the Contemporary Review, and at once it secured an enormous sale.
George Du Maurier
The most suddenly successful novel of recent times was Trilby, first published in Harper's Monthly in 1894.
Rudyard Kipling
The Nineteenth Century was drawing to a close; students of literature lamented the passing of the great masters of song and story...
Glance At The Eighteenth Century
Literature of a high order was virtually extinguished in France during the terrors of the Revolution.
Chateaubriand
If one man and one book can fairly be fixed as marking the entrance of the new order of French literature, that honor belongs to François Auguste, Vicomte de Chateaubriand and his work...
Madame De Stael
From a different starting-point and in a different way Madame de Staël contributed to infuse new ideals and methods into French literature.
The Ideologists
The new literature which was to signalize the new Century found its most telling expression in imaginative writings, that class of work which most directly touches the heart.
Beranger
We pass to the creative writers whose works appeal to the sense of pleasure first and to the reasoning faculty only secondarily.
Lamartine
Lamartine, compared with Béranger, fills a nobler space in a loftier realm. Whatever Béranger lacked to make his songs undeniably true poems depth, dignity, sublimity Lamartine possessed.
Beyle (stendhal)
Henri Beyle (1783-1842), who used the pen-name Stendhal, was a prolific writer of novels, remarkable for depth and a peculiar power of analysis.
De Vigny
Alfred de Vigny (1797-1863) was one of those men of gloomy genius who prefer the proud isolation of their souls to the applause of crowds.
Classicism And Romanticism
The radical difference between Classicism and Romanticism, so prominent in French literary history, may be broadly stated to be that between artificialism and naturalism.
Hugo
In the land of Romance there are three Kingdoms that of Poetry, of the Drama, of the Novel. Only once has one strong conqueror worn the triple crown, and that was when Victor Hugo was hailed as first in song, first in stagecraft, and first in prose fiction.
De Musset
After Hugo there followed a brilliant crowd of writers, who adorn the new reign of Romance. In the Cénacle one of the youngest was Alfred de Musset (1810-1857), a typical Parisian, regarding pleasure as the chief end of life.
The Romantic Novelists
The novel, now all but supreme in the literature of the world, is traced by literary historians to the prose romance which originated, with little, if any foreign impulse, in France in the Twelfth Century.
George Sand
George Sand is the literary pseudonym of a woman, who was by birth Armantine Lucile Aurore Dupin, and became by marriage Baroness Dudevant. Born in 1804, her life is as fantastic as her fictions.
Balzac
As George Sand is the typical emotionalist in romance, Honoré de Balzac is the accepted type of the realists. She was a prose poet, revealing the joys and sorrows, the revolts and aspirations of individuals.
Dumas
Alexandre Dumas shares with Hugo the glory of the revival of the romance of adventure. He was the son of General Alexandre Dumas, who was a Creole, the illegitimate son of a French Marquis and a negro girl.
Augier
In the fifth decade of the Century there was somewhat of a reaction against the Romanticists, which was called the School of Common Sense.
Philosophers And Historians
The ideas of England and Germany, introduced by the Romanticists, affected philosophic thought and historical writing as well as poetry and fiction.
Thierry
On turning now to the French historians, the work of Thierry firsts enlists the attention. History had been written by Dryasdusts in chronological style for generations.
Michelet
In Jules Michelet (1798-1874) literature recognizes a brilliant compound of historian, poet, philosopher, naturalist and reformer.
Guizot
François Pierre Guillaume Guizot (1787-1874), eminent as a statesman and historian, was born at Nimes, where his father, a Liberal and Protestant, was guillotined in the Revolution.
Thiers
Another great historian, who was also a statesman, was Louis Adolphe Thiers (1797-1877).
De Tocqueville
Alexis Charles Henri Clérel de Tocqueville, to give him his full due, was a philosopher rather than an historian.
Literature Under The Empire 1852-1870
In the reign of Louis Philippe serious literature had been cultivated. Several of the leading statesmen, as Guizot and Thiers, had already won fame as historians, and political writers.
Gautier
Among those who were conspicuous in the contest over the memorable first performance of Victor Hugo's Hernani in 1830 none was more so than Théophile Gautier (1811-1872) who had arrayed himself for the occasion in a crimson vest.
Sainte-Beuve
Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve might have been included among the early Romanticists, but his valuable work was as a critic.
Merimee
The popularity of the opera Carmen directs attention to Prosper Mérimée (1803-70), on whose story it is founded.
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