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The Theatre In Greece - Old Greek Comedy
GREEK Comedy, like Tragedy, sprang from the worship of Dionysus. Sicily was its cradle. From very early days it was the custom in Laconia to celebrate the close of the vintage by public rejoicings in honour of the god. These festivals included hymns chanted by the chorus, and improvised dialogues, which often were only bitter invective, even degenerating into insult.
The Theatre In Greece - The Middle Comedy And The New Comedy
THE Old Comedy was in its essence the outcome of the free democracy of Athens, and with the temporary suppression of this by the Thirty, and the hampered and enfeebled condition of the State after the democracy had been restored, the Old Comedy decayed. Popular satire was not at the outset rejected by the Middle Comedy.
The Latin Theatre - The Latin Theatre Tragedy
ALTHOUGH the Greek language was known in Italy long before the third century, it was only practised by the Romans after that date. In the first instance, the great personages sent out from Rome as ambassadors employed it as the diplomatic language ; then the submission of Tarentum and other Greek colonies in 265 B.C. contributed to its diffusion among the conquerors.
The Latin Theatre - Theatres In Rome, And Formalities In Connection With The Dramatic Representations
THE dramatic representations in Rome, as in Greece, were for a long time accessory to religious worship. Every year there were four or five gatherings : the Roman (or great) Games, the Plebeian Games, the Games of Apollo, the Megalesian Games, and under the Republic the Floral Games.
The Latin Theatre - Comedy In Rome
COMEDY held a more important place in Rome than Tragedy. The earliest comic performances (after the Etrurian Fescennina) date back, in all probability, to the fourth century B.C. In 390 we are told that a wooden stage was erected in the circus for performances for the amusement of the people.
The Latin Theatre - The Theatre In The First Centuries Of The Christian Era
FROM Tiberius to the end of the Empire, Comedy properly so-called disappeared, to make way for the Mimes of the preceding century and for a new class of play, the Pantomime. At the beginning this new mode was a kind of Mime, in which poses and gestures constituted the fundamental portion of the play. Words occupied a secondary place, and eventually disappeared altogether.
The Latin Theatre - The Theatre Of Antiquity And The Modern Stage
THE year 1844 was in France the signal for the definite adoption in the leading theatres of a style forgotten for three hundred years ; which style, moreover, even in the sixteenth century, had flourished only in the private theatres of a few colleges. This was the Ancient Drama, under the form of translations or adaptations from the original text, in the setting of the Greek tragedies of the fifth century B.C.
The Theatre In France - Liturgical Drama, Miracle Plays, And Comedy Before The Fourteenth Century
IN the year 359 A.D. the Franks (most formidable of the barbarian hordes that ravaged the West) obtained from the Emperor Julian the right to settle along the left bank of the Rhine, and to occupy Belgium as Allies of the Empire. But, in 486, Clovis, the head of the tribe of Salic Franks, invaded Roman Gaul (where Syagrius was at that time reigning under the nominal authority of Zeno, Emperor of the East), and, as victor at the battle of Soissons, brought all the other Frankish tribes beneath his sceptre.
The Theatre In England - Liturgical Drama And Miracle Plays Before The 14th Century
WHILE Clovis, at the end of the fifth century, was creating the Frankish Empire, with Paris for its capital, the Angles and Saxons had founded the Heptarchy in Britain, thus dividing England into seven kingdoms (449-607). In the ninth century the Danish pirates, profiting by the internecine dissensions in England, invaded the country, and soon conquered it entirely.
The Theatre In France - Miracle Plays And Mimed Mysteries In The 14th Century
OF new compositions in the fourteenth century, we know only forty-three Miracles of Notre-Dame, one secular Mystery, five Provenšal Mysteries, and one Mystery of the Passion. The religious plays of the fourteenth century were named Miracles of Notre-Dame. All bore the same character: the representation, namely, of some miraculous event produced by the intervention of Our Lady.
The Theatre In France - The Mysteries Of The 15th Century And Their Performance
MYSTERY Plays properly so-called (that is, Spoken Mysteries) date from the fifteenth century. They are for the most part derived from the Old and, still more, from the New Testament ; but many of them also treat of the lives of the saints. These last are particularly interesting from the details in which they abound, as to the manners and customs of certain towns or provinces, and are strikingly realistic.
The Theatre In England - Miracle Plays Of The 15th Century And Their Performance
NEXT to the cycle of York Plays in chronological order comes the Woodkirk, or Towneley, collection, which in its complete form dates from the reign of Henry vi., doubtless from the year 1450. These miracle plays were named after a little hamlet, where the performances usually took place, near Wakefield, in the county of York.
The Theatre In France - Comedy In The 15th Century
COMEDY, which was almost entirely neglected during the fourteenth century, made a new start alongside of the Mystery Play. The development of this type, that was barely sketched out in the thirteenth century, corresponded to a spiritual need.
The Theatre In England - Religious Drama In The 16th Century
IN addition to the four cycles of Miracle Plays described in the previous chapters, there exists a fifth collection in manuscript, belonging to Mr. Nicholls. The plays in this collection differ very little from the Chester Plays, but they contain more allusions to the manners of the period.
The Theatre In France - Historical Comedy, Dogmatic Moralities, Dramatic Moralities, And The Last Mysteries In The 16th Century
COMEDY continued to flourish in the sixteenth century under the form of the Morality, the Farce, and the Sotie, and, in conformity with the traditions of the preceding century, remained the faithful mirror of the chief political events of the time.
The Theatre In England - Allegorical Comedy, The Interlude, The Pageant, And The Mask In The 16th Century
IT was pointed out in Chapter III. that the allegorical element had made its appearance in the Coventry Plays, as early as the second half of the fifteenth century, thus heralding the approach of the Moral proper, which was already flourishing in France at the same epoch.
The Theatre In France - Classical Drama And The Schools Of The Renaissance Between 1550 And 1588
WHILE Comedy was perishing from the restrictions imposed upon it by the censors, the study of the Ancient Theatre had begun to inaugurate new ideas, and was insensibly preparing the way for a regular system of dramatic composition. In France the imitations were preceded by translations.
The Theatre In England - Classical Drama In England Between 1550 And 1588
THE first regular English comedy is Ralph Roister Doister, which dates from 1550. It was the work of Nicholas Udall, who was a master first at Eton, and afterwards at Westminster. Udall was a native of Hampshire, and died in 1556. The play is believed to have been acted the year of its publication at Eton, during the Christmas holidays.
The Theatre In France - The Theatre In The Early Part Of The Reign Of Henri IV (1589-1600)
TOWARDS the year 1588 the studies of antiquity and the literary exercises were suddenly interrupted by the civil war. A party had formed in France in defence of the Catholic religion, which was said to be insufficiently protected by the king, Henri III. This party, the ` League,' was headed by the Duc de Guise, who, seeking to replace the House of Valois on the throne, with this object approached...
The Theatre In England - The National Drama Before Shakespeare (1580-1600)
THE Historical Tragedy is the earliest form of the English National Drama. It originated in a poetical work of a highly original character, entitled The Mirror for Magistrates, begun in 1557 by Thomas Sackville (Lord Buckhurst, Earl of Dorset). The aim of the author was to introduce all the names of unhappy and illustrious fame, from the Norman Conquest to the end of the fourteenth century.
The Theatre In France - Alexandre Hardy, Rotrou, And The French Stage Prior To The Adoption Of Classical Tragedy
LITTLE is known of Alexandre Hardy before the end of the year 1593, when it is believed that he engaged himself in a strolling company of players. These `troupes de campagne' (as they were called) were generally formed in Paris during Lent.
The Theatre Of The Middle Ages On The Stage, In The Nineteenth Century, In France And England
IN the north of France Sacerdotal Drama occupied the sanctuary of the church at certain periods of the year, down to the first quarter of the nineteenth century. M. OnÚsime Leroy relates that in 1821 a priest, appointed shortly before Christmas to the charge of a Flemish village, of whose customs he was ignorant, had just begun the midnight mass, when he suddenly perceived an artificial star shining over his head.
The Theatre In England - The Romantic Drama Of Shakespeare And His Successors (1590-1642)
IN 1557 a respectable merchant of Stratford-on-Avon, John Shakespeare by name, glover, tanner, and wool-merchant, married Mary Arden, daughter of a wealthy yeoman farmer at Wilmecote. The child of this union was William Shakespeare, the greatest dramatic poet England has produced, born April 23, 1564. Though the point is uncertain, it is generally supposed that the boy was sent at the age of seven...
General Apercu Of The Theatre In France And England Between 1640 And 1900 In France
INSPIRED by the spirit of the heroic Spanish Drama, and the `rules' of Ancient Poetry, Corneille with Le Cid (performed 1636) decided the fate of Classical Tragedy, which was henceforth to reign paramount on the French Stage for a period of two centuries.
Paths To Power - Power Through A Vision Of God
THE person and the scene are most familiar. It is Moses, the serious, no longer young, man, pausing on the threshold of a great career to behold the vision of God, and in it to find the secret of power for a long and hard life. Every man brings his history with him. This is the boy, now filled with the energies of manhood, who had been hidden from the fiendish eye of the slave power in Egypt...
Paths To Power - Enduring Power Through A Deeper Vision Of God
A NATION is said to be humanity on a large scale. Certain it is that you may profitably study the human soul in a more ample atmosphere, if you direct your attention to a whole people or the race. The lines come out more vividly. It is of the greatest advantage when you may study both its typical man and his nation together, especially when their features and energies and limitations are revealed...
Paths To Power - Overshadowing Power
WHAT an announcement, at what a moment, to what a soul, and from what a source! 'The power of the Highest shall over-shadow thee.' The voice is that for which the human heart always listens when life's issues suddenly become infinite; it is the voice discerned only when a silent abyss springs between the tiny energy one has and the mighty duty one is called to; it is the only voice that travels...
Paths To Power - Overshadowing Power
THE human heart does not exhaust a reverent interest in Mary and her Child. The mind has its questions to ask. Never was mother-hood so eager, as to-day, to measure up to the divine privilege. Never did Mary's motherhood so command and satisfy every finest ideal. But what one of the dear mothers here would not like to know a little more of the manner of her progress with her child in that....
Paths To Power - The Winning Of Power Through Temptation
IN our studies of the paths to power, we are come at length to the Christ of God, Jesus of Galilee, our brother, and, as He will prove Himself, our Master. Shall we not reverently go with Him into the crisis of His experience which inaugurates Him as our true Christ? He returned from the desert 'in the power of the Spirit,' because He had there victoriously met His trial as our Saviour.
Paths To Power - Power To Meet Unexpected Demands
IF Jesus is to be explained by the human estimates and accounts of Him, interesting to an era, which finds fortunes, as ours does, in latent and unsuspected resources, developing by-products and wastes into values, we must describe Him as the chief prophet of the unseen and the apostle of the invisible. This is illuminating, so far as it goes.
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