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Production And Consumption Of Coffee
UNDER the headings of the different countries where coffee is grown a general idea of the production has been given, but it will be well to tabulate out the total of last year's crops to give some idea of the vastness of the coffee trade of the world, and by inference the enormous amount of capital engaged in it.
Coffee - Preparation For The London Market
LONDON is unfortunately no longer the principal port in Europe to which coffee is shipped. Many other places attract much larger quantities, as is shown by the following table of European stocks on November 1st, 1909.
Valuing Coffee
HAVING traced the coffee from its original place of growth and followed all the processes necessary to the preparation for market, we come naturally to the question of values and how to set about this most difficult but necessary task.
Roasting Coffee
AN old adage, familiar to many, yet quite changed, or rather, impossible to use now in its original sense, runs that Good wine needs no bush. If we reverse and slightly alter the thought we may come to the conclusion that good coffee does need good roasting. Roasting is without doubt the most important part of the coffee dealer's business.
Blending Of Coffee
WE may ask, is this always necessary ? To this there can be but one answer : No, it is not necessary, but it is often beneficial. There are certainly a very large number of grocers who are content to use one kind only, and there are many coffees which are perfectly good and useful by themselves.
Coffee And Its Medicinal Properties
THE stimulating and refreshing action of coffee is mainly due to the presence of caffeine and a volatile oil. Caffeine belongs to the group of substances known as alkaloids, which as a class have usually a bitter taste and are only slightly soluble in water.
Coffee Adulterants And Substitutes
THE history of the regulations with regard to coffee and chicory is rather curious, inasmuch as coffee appears to have been adulterated almost immediately after its introduction, and legislative interference was soon necessary.
Increasing The Consumption Of Coffee
MUCH has unquestionably been done of late years to call attention to coffee, and many grocers have reaped a good harvest by persistently endeavouring to cultivate this branch of their business.
Coffee Making
THE making of coffee is another point that the general public require to be educated in. There are probably dozens of patent contrivances each described by their inventor as the only one whereby coffee can be properly made, just as there are scores of recipes which might be tabulated under the heads of simple, elaborate or impossible.
Luca Signorelli His Life
IT is a curious fact that, considering the number of documents which exist relating to Signorelli, and the paintings time has spared, so little should be known beyond the merest outline of his life.
Luca Signorelli - Development And Characteristics Of His Genius
THE foregoing chapter contains only a bare record of certain facts in the life of Luca Signorelli. Fortunately time has spared many of his paintings, and in the study of these we get a fuller insight into his nature and his aims.
Earliest Works Of Luca Signorelli
ONE of the most remarkable things in the history of Signorelli's work, considering what a number of his paintings remain, is that only two of them can be placed with any degree of certainty as having been executed before his fortieth year.
Luca Signorelli - Middle Period
WE have now arrived at the paintings belonging to the year 1491, part of which Signorelli spent in Volterra, three works still remaining in that city to testify to the visit...
Luca Signorelli - Orvieto
THERE seems to be a moment in the life of every great man in which he touches the height of his possibilities, and reaches the limits of his powers of expression. To Signorelli it came late, at an age when most men begin to feel at least their physical powers on the wane.
Later Paintings Of Luca Signorelli
WE have seen that during the four years and a half in which Signorelli was engaged on the great work of the Orvieto frescoes, he yet spent some part of the time in his native city, and there, in 1502, he painted the signed and dated Deposition...
Last Works Of Luca Signorelli
WE have now considered in detail most of the important works of Signorelli's early manhood and maturity, and up to his seventy-fourth year have found him, both in conception and execution, still maintaining a high standard of excellence, and at an age when the life's work is supposed to be over showing but little sign of failing powers.
Drawings Of Luca Signorelli
THE study of Signorelli's drawings is unsatisfactory, both by reason of their scarcity, and the enormous difference of merit, even among those few which can be considered as genuine.
Pupils And General Influence Of Luca Signorelli
IT would not be possible, in the space at my disposal, to go with any thoroughness into the work of Signorelli's imitators, even of those who fell directly under his influence.
Chronological Table Of The Life And Works Of Luca Signorelli
The following table is compiled from that of Cavalcaselle e Crowe. (Le Monnier, 1898) as being more complete than that in Milanesi's Vasari, and more condensed than that of Vischer.
Life Of Gaudenzio Ferrari
IN dealing with the first twenty or thirty years of Gaudenzio Ferrari's life, we are confronted with the difficulty which meets us in dealing with the lives of the greater number of the artists of the Renaissance, namely, a complete absence of documentary information.
Art And Development Of Gaudenzio Ferrari
THE fame of Leonardo at Milan is perhaps the reason why the existence of a distinct and original Lombard School was more or less ignored till within the last century. The portion of that school which became revolutionized by Leonardo's methods was at or near Milan, where, however, the old Milanese School as represented by Foppa, Civerchio, Borgognone, Zenale, and others...
Early Years Of Gaudenzio Ferrari
IN the preceding chapter I have endeavoured to trace Gaudenzio's artistic evolution. We will now proceed to examine his works in detail. It is a little difficult to place them chronologically, as his easel pictures were always more carefully finished than his fresco work.
Gaudenzio Ferrari - 1511 To 1513
GAUDENZIO'S anxiety to have matters settled at Arona in the summer of 1511 was no doubt owing, not only to stress of work already on hand, but probably still more to the work he had in prospect for the future. The idea of decorating the centre wall of Santa Maria delle Grazie at Varallo was no doubt already under discussion.
Gaudenzio Ferrari - 1513 To 1520
THE screen in the Church of Santa Maria delle Grazie at Varallo practically ends the first period of Gaudenzio's career. His fame is now well established, and during the next twelve or fourteen years we shall find him hard at work in various parts of the duchy of Milan.
Gaudenzio Ferrari - 1520 To 1528
BETWEEN 1519 and 1528 Gaudenzio was busy over two important works, which, while differing considerdbly in size and technique, both combine a mixture of painting and modelling.
Gaudenzio Ferrari - Vercelli - 1528 To 1536
EARLY in 1528 Gaudenzio went to live at Vercelli. He was probably led by both family and business reasons to make this move. He had recently married again, and it is possible he preferred to start his new menage in another town, and one where he had many friends and where he expected to find fresh work for his brush, and in this he was not disappointed.
Last Years Of Gaudenzio Ferrari
THE next trace we have of Gaudenzio is at Varallo, where he was working till 1539. Assisted by Lanino and his son Gerolamo, he painted the cupola of the old church on the Sacro Monte.
Drawings Of Gaudenzio Ferrari
A GOOD many of Gaudenzio's drawings and cartoons are to be found at Turin. In the Royal Library is an album containing a good many small drawings belonging to the Lombard School, of which fourteen may be attributed to Gaudenzio.
Chronology Of Gaudenzio Ferrari
1480-81. Probable date of Gaudenzio's birth at Valduggia. Father's name, Antonio Lanfranco or Fracchino; mother's family name, Vincio (of Varallo) both dead before 1510.
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